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Archive for the ‘Caos’ Category

►Tarot: 

“Most Relevant Generalities / Major Arcana” 🗝️:

The twenty-two cards of the Arcana Major. Tarot deck: Rider,Waite & Smith.


Introduction and Sketch of this Post:

This is the first post of  the series on “Tarot”. 

Firstly, in section 1), I´ll present an overview of the story of Tarot, its use for divination purposes, tarot spreads, cards´positions (upright or reversed), total number of cards, division into two categories: Major and Minor Arcana.

In the second section (2) of this post, I´ll assess in-depth the Major Arcana. 

For that purpose, I´ll use the classic Rider-Waite deck, illustrated by Pamela Colman-Smith, which has been continually printed since 1909. Hence, it is easy to find in Bookstores or online nowadays.

Let´s keep in mind that the Major Arcana cards are somehow related to Carl Jung’s archetypes. They are “patterns”, inherent part of the Collective Unconscious. These cards symbolise the process we go through in our lives, aiming to become a balanced and integrated person. 

With that being said, I´ll offer the meanings of the respective 22 cards comprising this group.

In both, the upright and reversed position. Worth noting that, when you shuffle the tarot cards, they often end up facing in different directions. So basically, each card can show up in an “upright” or a reversed” position.

To end, in the third (3) section, I´ll dig into the so-called “Fool´s Journey”. The Fool card is numbered zero, and if you look closely at the cards, in sequential order, starting with the Fool, you´ll notice that them seem to tell us a story. The story of our own evolution as persons, going through different stages, with their respective struggles and victories. Along this journey, we encounter challenges, face adversity, perform labours, meet people, make hard decisions and fight opposing forces. Each step of the way brings us closer to embrace the Wholeness of Ourselves and of the World. This “journey” is, in fact a cycle. And one could go through the same cycle many times in a lifetime. Or one could just fail to reach the end of the cycle. There is of course, an implied recurring element associated with Karma here. Maybe the “Fool´s Journey” could reach its finish line in another, next life. Or did so in a past life and now he is facing a new, different challenge.


►1) Tarot. Generalities:

Story and Purpose. Rider-Waite Deck: Spreads. Positions. Major and Minor Arcana:

I own this deck!: Tarot Rider Waite boxed-deck.

1.1.⇒♦ What is Tarot and how does a Tarot Reading work?: 

The Tarot is a pack of playing cards, used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play games such as Italian Tarocchini and French Tarot. In the late 18th century, it began to be used for divination.

In  this last sense, Tarot cards are commonly used to measure potential outcomes and evaluate influences surrounding a person, an event, or both. The technical term for tarot reading is Taromancy (divination through the use of tarot cards), which is a subsection of Cartomancy (divination through cards in general).

Tarot reading is not about predictions, but more about possible outcomes as well as examining influences related to the issue at hand. These could be influences which the subject might not even be aware of before the reading.A spread is the arrangement of cards dealt in a reading.

1.2 ⇒♦Spreads:

There are many types of spreads. Usually, the querent (receiver of the reading) asks a general question, or could just picture a situation in his mind. He can keep them to himself. You (person doing the reading) can then pull six cards, representing different aspects of your past, present and future situation. You can pull three cards, instead, where the first represents the past, the second represents the present, and the third represents the future. The three card spread is called The Three Fates. Also, we have the so-called Celtic- Spread Reading, which consists of ten cards representing a variety of things including any past and future influences, personal hopes, and conflicting influences. You can check out other spreads here

1.3 ⇒♦ Positions of the Cards: Upright or Reversed:

Cards can show up in two positions: Upright or Reversed.

The Upright position represents certain Idea or Situation.

But, what happens when the card shows up in a reversed or inverted position?.

a) If the card is reversed, the meaning is almost always considered to be the opposite of the one the card might reveal when it is upright.

Although this is the predominant criteria (and, hence, the one, I´ll stick to), there are still other ways of interpreting reversals.

b) One of them could be to say that they refer to the previous card (For example: If we have an inverted Strength card (8), it might actually be referring to The Chariot (7)).

c) Other way of interpreting reversals is to say that they represent blocked energies or resistance towards what the card represents. 

d) Finally, another way of doing reversals would be to say that it indicates an unconscious influence and, hence, that the querent is not aware of it. For example: If we pulled an inverted Sun, we might say that the querent lacks awareness towards this bright, joyful influence. Maybe because it is hidden, or perhaps because it has not fully developed yet. 

e) Another point to keep in mind: some people like to switch “gender” in those cards in which a female or male figure shows up. So, If we pulled Justice (with a Female figure) in an inverted position, we could assume that the characteristics of that card might be related to a Man in the querent´s life.

As I said above, I will provide the meaning of reversed cards as the opposite to which the card reveals in its upright position. But, when doing a reading you can include other interpretation criteria, too. 

1.4 ⇒♦ The Tarot Deck. Major and Minor Arcana:

A Tarot deck has 78 cards, consisting of two types of cards: Major and Minor Arcana.

The “Trump cards” (numbered 1 to 21) and the Fool (numbered 0) are called the Major Arcana, while the ten pip and four court cards in each suit are known as Minor Arcana.

•The Minor Arcana (Lesser Secrets) Consists of 56 cards, divided into four suits (Swords, Cups, Wands and Pentacles). Each suit has 14 cards: ten numbered cards and four court cards. The court cards are the King, Queen, Knight and Page/Jack, in each of the four tarot suits.

•The Major Arcana (Greater Secrets), consists of 22 cards, without suits: The Magician, The High Priestess, The Empress, The Emperor, The Hierophant, The Lovers, The Chariot, Strength, The Hermit, Wheel of Fortune, Justice, The Hanged Man, Death, Temperance, The Devil, The Tower, The Star, The Moon, The Sun, Judgement, The World, and The Fool. Cards from The Magician to The World are numbered in Roman numerals from I to XXI, while The Fool is the only unnumbered card, often placed at the beginning of the deck as 0.

I finally wanted to stress that when one lays out a spread or performs a reading and sees mostly Major Arcana cards,one can assume that the matter in question, and/or the querent’s life, is more profound in comparison to Minor Arcana cards. The Major Arcana are signposts to things, events, and people, that are meant to be taken more seriously and looked at more closely, in general, than the Minor Arcana cards will generally represent.


2) Major Arcana Cards (Rider-Waite Deck):

These are 22 cards of the Major Arcana and their respective meanings, in both the upright and reversed position.

⇒♦ 0. The Fool:

The Fool is shown at the beginning of his journey with unlimited potential. He has a bag holding off his staff and a bright sun rising up behind him.

The white rose in his left hand represents purity and innocence. He has a guardian in the little white dog warning him of danger as he approaches the edge of the cliff. The fool is unaware, as he is looking up.

The card represents beginnings, overly optimistic approaches and spontaneity. It also reminds us that, even if we are enjoying ourselves, there are always consequences facing our actions. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: Living in the moment, feeling carefree or spontaneous, entering a new phase.
•Reversed: Being blocked, restricted.


⇒♦ I. The Magician:

When the Magician appears in a spread, it points to the talents, capabilities and resources at the querent’s disposal. It represents possibilities and the card shows that the querent has all the elements, as the four suits of the Minor Arcana (Swords, Wands, Pentacles and Cups) show up in the card. The magician is the creator of ideas and thoughts.

►Meanings:

•Upright: Acting consciously, acknowledging your motivations. Feeling centered and committed. Being creative and energized.
•Reversed: Inability to act or react. Feeling drained. Losing focus or commitment.


⇒♦ II. The High Priestess:

The High Priestess card shows her seated between two pillars marked B and J, which stand for Boaz  and Jachin respectively (You can find these names in the First Books of Kings). Furthermore, these letters are inscribed upon the pillars of the Salomon Temple, associated with Wisdom. There is a cloth behind her depicting pomegranates, a symbol of death and the afterlife in Greek Mythology. The High Priestess is the keeper of secret knowledge, as the crystal ball on her head shows. There is a crescent moon beneath her feet, which might represent that the opportunities could increase. She is holding a book, the Tora, the Jewish sacred book. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: Withdrawing. Being passive or calm. Seeking guidance from within. Understanding the potential and possibilities. Looking beyond the obvious.
•Reversed: Inability to find your inner voice or to look beyond.


⇒♦ III. The Empress:

The Empress depicts a woman seating in a field. She represents fertility, being a sort of Mother figure. She is surrounded by flowers and plants. There is also a heart-shaped rock with a Venus symbol on it. As we know, this symbol stands for Women.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Nourishing life. Nurturing and caring for others. Abundance. Experiencing the senses (pleasure, beauty, etc). Feeling connected to Nature.
•Reversed: Focusing on oneself without caring for other people. Scarcity. Inhibition. Closure.


⇒♦ IV. The Emperor:

The figure in this card depicts stability, structure, power and protection. He is related to Aries, in the Horoscope. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: Father figure. Setting directions, laws rules or boundaries. Applying reason. Creating order. Exerting control.
•Reversed: Chaos. Lack of control and order.


⇒♦ V. The Hierophant:

He is a  High Priest. Sits upon his throne as to other men kneel before him. He is a man who shares rituals, he is a leader of a flock/group, not of individuals. He represents alliances, goodness, comfort and traditional values. The Hierophant is associated with Taurus, in the Zodiac.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Education, becoming informed. Having a belief system. Following the rules, staying within conventional bounds.
•Reversed: Being heterodox, rebel. Not sticking to traditional values. Acting crazily.


⇒♦ VI. The Lovers:

This card shows temptation, represented by the snake on the tree. We can also see two human beings, male and female,  and a spirit with open hands above them, a brilliant sun. The card is not about two people however as it is about one: the person who experiences love. It refers to falling in love with someone or … Something. This card is associated with Gemini, in the Zodiac.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Love. Marriage or partnership. Establishing bonds. Staying true to yourself. Determining values. Facing a moral choice.
•Reversed: Loneliness. Loss in relationships. Rejection. Sticking to others´opinions or values.


⇒♦ VII. The Chariot:

It represents labour and power. There are two sphinxes. Their colors are reversed, pretty much like a Yin-Yang symbol. The driver has a Sun on his head. We can see rising and falling moons close to his neck. The complementary nature of these two opposite natures tend to echo the sphinxes pointing out to Balance.  The Chariot is related to Cancer, in the Horoscope.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Victory, reaching goals. Being determined and focussed. Feeling self-confident. Mastering emotions. Self control, discipline.
•Reversed: Putting other´s first. Resignation. Lack of determination or focus. Low self-esteem. Defeat. Confusion.


⇒♦ VIII. Strength: 

The card shows a maiden taming a lion, not with physical strength, but with strenght of character: understanding, compassion. This is symbolic of resourcefulness, of softening the power we have to control others. The card shows that harmony has been achieved as the lion seems to be happy as the woman caresses him and his tail is tucked between his legs, in a submissive attitude.  The woman has a symbol of infinite, as it appears in the card of the Magician. This represents endless possibilities. The card stresses that our strengths are much more than our physical abilities. This card is related to Leo, in the Horoscope.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Strenght and power. Refusing to get angry, maintaining composure. Caring about others, compassion. Forgiveness. Persuasion, being able to influence.
•Reversed: Hard Control. Weariness. 


⇒♦ IX. The Hermit:

The card depicts an old man, alone, leading his way through the darkness by a light, which, is actually a little shining star. The Hermit represents knowledge, inner peace and understanding of his life. The card represents solitude, withdrawal, careful thought, ruminations.

The Hermit could represent a need to be alone in order to sort out things… Or a person in the querent´s life. The Hermit is associated to Virgo, in the Horoscope.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Being introspective, looking for answers within. Withdrawing from the world. Loneliness.
•Reversed: Involvement with the world. Being with others.


⇒♦ X. Wheel of Fortune: 

We can see the letters T, A , R and O which stand for Tarot, as it its spelt. This represents endless circles. In the inner, little circle, we can see the signs for the four key elements in Alchemy: Mercury, Salt, Sulfur and Water. The Egyptian God Anubis, (painted in red) is holding the Wheel on his back. Anubis looked like a dog and was a Psychopomp and Ruler of the Underworld. Upon the wheel we can see a Sphinx, keeping the balance of the wheel itself.  There is a snake on the left of the card. Some say this snake is Typhon, a monster from Greek Mythology, representing Earth. On the four corners of the card yellow, winged creatures are reading books. This could reference the Book of Revelations. The creatures resemble a lion, a calf,  a human being and an eagle. The wheel is a circle, but carrying with it the past experiences. It represents completion, also Fate, sudden good luck, transitions and changes.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Feeling a sense of destiny. Uncovering patterns and cycles. Turning point: altering the present course. Speed. Change.
•Reversed: Slow pace. Blocked change, no movement.


⇒♦ XI. Justice: 

The card depicts a King seated between two pillars. He has a sword in one hand and a scales of Justice in the other. It represents balance, a middle ground. This card could also be literal suggesting a Court proceeding, a conflict or the involvement of Authority to resolve a dispute. Justice is associated with Libra in the Horoscope. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: Fairness, justice. Honesty. Responsibility. Acknowledging the truth. Accepting the consequences of your actions.
•Reversed: Avoiding the truth, disavowing your role. Shirking responsibility.


⇒♦ XII. The Hanged Man:

The card depicts a man suspended by his legs upside down from a tree. His leg is bent and his face is peaceful. There is no indication of suffering. A corona is around his head indicating wisdom. The hanged man indicates a change of perspective, swaying between different possibilities, an inability to make a decision. It is a time of internal focus , introspection and self-discovery. 

Being hung by one leg was traditionally a punishment for traitors. In that sense, what the hanged man sees as right is upside down to those who have passed judgement upon him. 

►Meanings: 

Upright: Waiting. Letting go. Accepting what is. Overturning priorities. 
•Reversed: Inability to let go. Control. Self-assertion. Struggle.


⇒♦ XIII. Death:

The Death card depicts a skeleton in dark armor,  a grim reaper upon horseback. Before him, a Priest offers prayers, a man lays dead, a young looks on with curiosity as an older child turns away in fear. Overall, we can see the range of emotions that people experience. In the Reaper´s hand there is a black flag. This card is a symbol of change, part of the cycle of death and rebirth. This card is associated with Scorpio, in the Zodiac.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Endings. Putting the past behind you. Change or transition. Accepting the inevitable. Cutting out what isn’t necessary.
•Reversed: Beginnings. Fresh start.


⇒♦ XIV. Temperance:

The card depicts an archangel at the edge of a riverbank. One foot on land, the other in water.  He pours water from one cup into another. The card is about balance. It suggest finding compromise or agreement as well as reminder to maintain moderation. This card is associated with Sagittarius, in the Horoscope.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Showing moderation. Mitigating a harsh position. Harmony. Fostering cooperation and synthesis. Healing and flourishing.
•Reversed: Excesses. Disagreement, competition. Discord, lack of harmony.


⇒♦ XV. The Devil: 

The Devil in this card has horns, goat legs and  wings of a bat. He holds a torch in his left hand. Chained to his pedestal are a man and a woman, also with characteristics of the devil: horns and a tail, but interestingly, their chains are loose around their neck. They are capable of slipping them off. However, they choose to remain chained. The card represents addiction, vice or obsession, things to which we might choose to remain beholden. In relationships, this card could represent a  control and temptation. This card is related to Capricorn in the Zodiac.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Being obsessed and unaware. Allowing yourself to be controlled. Being addicted. Overindulgence. Feeling hopeless.
•Reversed: Independence. Clarity. Hope and optimism. Release, freedom.


⇒♦ XVI. The Tower:

The Tower shows a tall tower pitched atop a mountain. Lightning strikes and flames burst from the building’s windows. People are leaping from the tower in desperation, wanting to flee such destruction and turmoil. 

The Tower signifies darkness and destruction on a physical scale. The Tower itself represents ambitions built on false premises. The card is associated with sudden, disruptive, rude awakening and destructive change.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Sudden change, defeat, destruction. Erupting in anger. Letting everything go. Exposing what was hidden. Toppling from the heights
•Reversed: Victory, control. Staying together. Serenity. Calm.


⇒♦ XVII. The Star:

The card depicts a maiden  kneeling at the edge of a small pool. The woman holds two containers of water. She pours the water out to nourish the earth and to continue the cycle of fertility, 
The other container pours the water onto dry land in five rivulets, representing the five senses. The woman has one foot on the ground, representing her common sense, and the other foot in the water, representing her intuition. Behind her, shines one large star and seven smaller stars. All the stars have eight points, and eight represents Strength. 
The card entails illumination, guidance and renewal. It suggests nourishment and hope. The astrological sign of the Star is Aquarius.
►Meanings:
•Upright: Regaining hope. Realizing an inner strength or truth. Wisdom. Being generous. Free-flowing love. Peace of mind. Calm.
•Reversed: Hopelessness, lack of faith, pessimism. Upheaval, Chaos.

⇒♦ XVIII. The Moon:

This card depicts two wolves howling at a Full Moon with a Crescent Moon inside.
The pool at the base of the card represents the subconscious mind and the crayfish that crawls out of the pool symbolises the early stages of consciousness unfolding.
The card suggests illusion, fear, anxiety. This might be a time of an emotional or mental trial and that the querent might not think clearly or could make questionable decisions as those inspired by the Lunacy of the Full Moon. The astrological sign of the Moon is Pisces.

►Meanings: 

Upright: Feeling fear. Deceiving yourself. Losing direction and purpose. 

Reversed: Being serene, untroubled, at peace. Enlightenment. 


⇒♦ XIX. The Sun: 

This is a joyful card.  The bright Sun is an image of optimism and fulfilment. The child in the card is happy. He is naked and this represents innocence and purity. The white horse upon which the child rides represents strength and purity of spirit. The horse is without a saddle and is controlled without the use of the hands.  The sunflowers in the background represent the fruitfulness of the spirit under the nourishment of the Sun.

►Meanings:
•Upright: Understanding. Enlightenment. Believing in your worth. Greatness, shining brilliantly. Joy and enthusiasm.
•Reversed: Being tired or sad. Weariness, confusion.


⇒♦ XX. Judgement:

The Judgement card shows a number of naked men, women and children rising up from their graves, responding to the trumpet call of the Archangel Gabriel, a psychopomp, who hovers high above them.
The card represents absolution and rebirth. The card could suggest that this is a time of resurrection, of bringing back the Past, revisiting things and making peace with past situations that were long ago thought be to put to rest, in order to finally move forward. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: Making a judgment. Making hard choices. Knowing what you must do. Making a fresh start. Releasing guilt. Forgiving yourself and others. Absolution.
•Reversed: Endings, feeling regretful and guilty.


⇒♦ XXI. The World:

The card depicts a woman surrounded by a wreath (symbol of Victory), holding two wands.

The figures in each of the four corners of the World card are the same figures that appear on the Wheel of Fortune. Interestingly, the World card is very much associated with the Wheel of Fortune, reflecting the cyclical progression of time and the human experience. 

The woman has one leg crossed over the other, just like the Hanged man. She is, in a sense, his opposite (i.e. the Hanged Man upright). As the Hanged Man looks inward, the woman in the World card looks outward. This card is a symbol of a completion and accomplishment. 

►Meanings:
•Upright: experiencing wholeness and balance. Synthesis. Accomplishing your goals. Becoming involved. Feeling fulfilled.
•Reversed: Isolation, apathy, withdrawal. Lack of integration.


⇒♦Astrological Signs & Planets:

Which are their Equivalents in the Arcana Major?:

Here we have the Zodiac Signs and their respective cards in the Major Arcana:

💦Water Signs: Cancer: The Chariot Scorpio: DeathPiscis: The Moon.

🔥Fire Signs: Aries: The Emperor. Leo: StrengthSagittarius: Temperance.

💨Air Signs: Gemini: The LoversLibra: JusticeAquarius: The Star.

🌎Earth Signs: Taurus: The HierophantVirgo: The HermitCapricorn: The Devil.

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►3) The Fool´s Journey… Or the Fool´s Lifecycle:

The Fool (0) has no idea what will happen to him and sets out on his journey with only his hopes. At the start of his trip, the Fool is fresh, open and spontaneous. But he is also unaware of the hardships he will face as he travels this world.

On setting out, the Fool immediately encounters the Magician (I) and the High Priestess (II).
The Magician takes advantage of the opportunities the Fool has in himself and provides him with what he might find useful during his journey. The High Priestess provides the fertile ground in which creative events occur.

As he grows, he meets with the Empress (III). The Fool becomes more and more aware of his surroundings. Hence he comes to know Mother Earth, experiencing an awakening of his senses. The Emperor (IV) represents for the Fool a Father Figure and through him he learns about the importance of laws and rules.

III. The Empress. IV. The Emperor.

The Hierophant (V) teaches the Fool to acknowledge the value of the beliefs and traditions of his culture. The Fool learns to identify with a group and discovers a sense of belonging.

Eventually, the Fool experiences Love (VI). He wants to reach out and become half of a loving partnership. In the meantime, he also feels he need to decide upon his own beliefs.

The Fool becomes an adult, he has a strong identity and a certain mastery over himself. Through discipline and will-power, he has developed an inner control, which are characteristics of the Chariot (VII).

Over time, life presents the Fool with many challenges, some that cause them sorrow and disappointment. But he is resilient and strong. He develops Patience, Compassion and Tolerance, which are all attributes of Strength (VIII).

Sometime during his journey, the Fool begins to look inward, trying to understand his feelings and motivations. He seeks moments of solitude to find his own direction, in accordance with the Hermit card (IX).

After much soul-searching, the Fool begins to see how everything connects. The Cycles he and Nature go through remind him of a Wheel of Fortune (X). He believes in both the power of his freedom to choose and Fate. He faces changes, recognizing his destiny in the sequence of events that led him to certain turning points.

The Fool wonders about Justice (XI). He starts with himself and looks back over his life to trace his actions. He takes responsibility for his past actions so he can make amends and ensure a more honest course for the future.

Sooner or later, he faces an experience that seems too difficult to endure. This overwhelming challenge humbles him until he has no choice but to give up and let go. He feels his world has been turned upside-down. So he pauses free of pressures, like the Hanged Man (XII).

The Fool cuts out what no longer serves him, or what makes him feel bad about himself. Death (XIII) .. . and Rebirth. After al the changes, he is ready to start over.

The Fool realizes the balancing stability of Temperance (XIV) and its powerful effects. By experiencing the extremes, he has come to appreciate moderation.

But moderation doesn´t last forever and vices and excesses could prevail. The Fool confronts the Devil (XV) within himself, in the form of obsessions and addictions.

The Fool may only find release through the sudden change represented by the Tower (XVI). Sometimes only a monumental crisis can generate enough power to smash the walls of the Tower. Only the destruction of the tower will set him free.

After going through a harsh time, the Fool find serenity and calm. He looks up and sees his own Star (XVII), a reflection of his own inner Self, which replaces the negative energies of the Devil.

Woefully, he is still vulnerable to the illusions of the Moon (XVIII). The Fool’s joy is a feeling state. His positive emotions are not yet subject to mental clarity. In his dreamy condition, the Fool is susceptible to fantasy, distortion and a false picture of the truth.

However, the Sun (XIX) shines. It dispels the clouds of confusion and fear. It enlightens, so the Fool both feels and understands the goodness of the world.

The Fool´s false, ego-self has been shed and his true Self manifests. The Fool makes a deeper Judgement (XX) about his life. He forgives himself and others. He feels cleansed and absolved.

The Fool reenters the World (XXI), but this time with a more complete understanding. He has integrated all the disparate parts of himself and achieved wholeness and fulfillment.

XX. Judgement. XXI. The World.


Last, but not Least: Tarot, “Deepening Knowledge”:

🗣️Before waving Goodbye, I wanted to leave you a few recommendations, as to this topic. Check them out:

•Learn the meanings of all cards and other issues. (Playlist): Reading Tarot Cards by Goodie.

Free Tarot Readings on YouTube, according to your astrological sign. I´ll recommend you my favorite Tarotist over there, who (as such!) often uses the classic Rider Waite Tarot (Or variations of it). Keep in mind that we haven´t still  gotten into the Minor Arcana. But, we have already studied the Major Arcana. Look for your Zodiac sign, over here: Carol´s Universe. (Long, in-depth monthly reading & great knowledge of the cards).

•Poetry of the Tarot:  Deborah Gregory´s poems based on Tarot Cards are excellent!.

Thanks for reading!. My next post will focus on Minor Arcana. Stay Tuned if you want to learn more about Tarot. See you!. Aquileana💕. 


►Links Post:
https://youtu.be/tFuCz1wAjLk
https://youtu.be/8WDQQZkEe4g
http://www.learntarot.com/less2.htm
http://www.learntarot.com/journey.htm
https://www.usgamesinc.com/Rider-Waite-Tarot-Card-Deck/
https://www.biddytarot.com/tarot-card-meanings/major-arcana/
https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/the-surprising-origins-of-tarot-most-misunderstood-cards/

 

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► “Metis in Ancient Greece”:

“Collaboration with José Cervera”💫:

Statue of the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 428 B.C.-348 B.C.). Behind him, the Goddess of Wisdom, Athena. Modern Academy of Athens.

______________________________________________________________

Summary:

This article is divided into three sections.

The First section presents Metis as a character, a Titan Goddess.

Being swallowed by Zeus (his cousin and husband), Metis would succumb to the same fate that Cronus´children, as indicated in the Second section.

The Third section will categorize different types of Knowledge, in Ancient Greece; Metis, among them. In that same section, the post will highlight how the word Metis acquired different meaning, changing from the name of the Goddess (Metis, the  Oceanid Titaness & Zeus´cousin and wife) to refer to a type of Intelligence (Practical wisdom). Thus, Metis was considered to cover all cognitive processes that were necessary for man in order to face adverse or confrontational situations against powerful adversaries, often in unstable and complex environments. Three examples from Greek Mythology will be provided. Finally, some final thoughts in the conclusion.

 •~~~•~~~ •~~~•~~~•~~~•~~~•

I. ►Metis, The Titan Goddess:

Metis was a mythological character belonging to the Titan generation. Like several primordial figures, she was an Oceanid. She was born of Oceanus and his sister Tethys, of an earlier age than Zeus and his siblings.

Metis was the first spouse of Zeus, and also her cousin.

Zeus lay with Metis but immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesied that Metis would bear extremely powerful children: the first, Athena and the second, a son more powerful than Zeus himself, who would eventually overthrow Zeus.

In order to forestall these dire consequences, Zeus tricked her into turning herself into a fly and promptly swallowed her. He was too late: Metis had already conceived a child.

As Zeus had swallowed Metis, Athena leaped from Zeus’s head. She was fully grown, armed, and armoured. 

 •~~~•~~~ •~~~•~~~•~~~•~~~•

II. ►A (side) note on Zeus and Cronus´Cannibal behaviours:

The similarities between Zeus swallowing Metis; and Cronus, swallowing his children, have been noted by several scholars.

Cronus was the Titan god of time and the ages. He envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus.

Cronus attacked him with the sickle, castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea.

From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, and the Erinyes  were produced. The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged.

 

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Once Cronus had castrated Uranus, he and his wife Rhea took the throne. Under their power a time of harmony and prosperity began, which became known as the “Golden Age”; a time when it was said that people lived without greed or violence, and without toil or the need for laws. But not all was well for Cronus, as he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy.

 

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When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children. 

Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in clothes, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son.

Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set under the glens of Mount Parnassus, and then his two brothers and three sisters. 

This would lead the Olympians in a ten-year war against the Titans, before driving them defeated into the pit of Tartaros. Many years later, Zeus released Kronos and his brothers from this prison, and made the old Titan king of the Elysian Islands, in the Underworld

As to Zeus´s story, relevant to us here, José Cervera accurately notes that the Ruler of Gods might have swallowed Metis (also) because he was to a certain extent aware of the fact that he was lacking something. Meaning: The Practical Wisdom that Metis represented. By swallowing Metis, however, Zeus had gained wisdom as part of his intrinsic nature. This would be a case of Incorporation which reminds us (despite the differences) to the biblical account, according to which Eve was molded by God from Adam´s rib.

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III. A ►Different Types of Knowledge: Episteme, Techne, Metis and Phronesis:

For the Greeks and particularly for Plato, Episteme and Techne represented knowledge of an order completely different from Metis.

Episteme means “science”, “understanding” or “knowledge”, with the implication that the understanding was rationally founded, in contrast to mere opinion or hearsay. Noesis, or dialectic reason, is the method used by Episteme.  

Techne entails “technical skills”.  It could be expressed precisely and comprehensively in the form of hard-and-fast rules, principles, and propositions. Techne is based on logical deduction from self-evident first principles.

Nous is the closest word to “intelligence” but it is more correctly translated as “mind”, and “mental activity”. For Plato and Aristotle it is the part of the soul which perceives abstract truths. 

Phronesis means “practical wisdom”, “good judgement” or what we might call “common sense”. 

Metis, in what concerns us is another form of practical wisdom, what we would call “cunning”. It is similar to Phronesis in that it entails knowledge of how humans behave, but it is manipulative and deceitful rather than seeking the common good. Cunning intelligence would later be defined as Phronesis.

III. B ►Metis, Magical Cunning and Practical Wisdom. Examples of Metis in “The Odyssey”:

By the era of Greek philosophy in the 5th century BC, Metis had become the mother of wisdom and deep thought, but her name originally connoted “magical cunning”.

Metis represented a wide array of practical skills and acquired intelligence in responding to a constantly changing natural and human environment.

Hence the word Metis began to be used to denote a particular form of practical wisdom, 

The classic case of Metis is Odysseus, as he often used his cleverness to deceive and defeat his enemies. This is found many times in Homer´s epic poem.

•1. One example of Metis as magical cunning  appears in Book XII. We are referring to the episode in which Odysseus plugged his crew’s ears with earwax, while binding himself and his crew to the mast of the ship to avoid the Siren´s song

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•2. When it comes to Metis (magical cunning), the episode of Polyphemus, from Homer´s “Odyssey” (Book IX) is also worth mentioning.

The Cyclops Polyphemus is portrayed as a cruel monster who had devoured a few of Odysseus’ men. The hero  wanted to beat him and take revenge so he offered Polyphemus some wine. The cyclops easily got drunk, but before falling asleep, he asked Odysseus his name, Odysseus told him his name was “Οὖτις”, which means “nobody”. While the monster was sleeping, Odysseus used a stake to blind him. When Polyphemus shouted for help from his fellow giants, saying that “Nobody” had hurt him, they just ignored him as they just took his words literally (“Nobody had hurt him”). In the morning, the blind Cyclops let the sheep out to graze. But Odysseus and his men had tied themselves to the undersides of the animals and that was how they managed to finally get away. 

•3. Finally, the Trojan Horse. Wasn´t it a great example of Metis or Cunning, as well?. Using trickery rather than violence, Odysseus disguised warriors as a gift, men as (a wooden image of) an animal, a symbol of the Greeks’ future victory as an image of their defeat, and ultimately, a clever trap. Once inside the city walls, the transformation was reversed and the act of Metis revealed for what it was.

“Building of the Trojan Horse” by Giandomenico Tiepolo (1774).-

 

In these examples of Metis, taken from “The Odyssey”, the emphasis is both on Odysseus’s ability to adapt successfully to a constantly shifting and challenging situation and on his capacity to understand, and hence outwit, his human and divine adversaries. 

It is not a minor detail, either, that Odysseus is traditionally aided by Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom. 

Athena- as mentioned before- was born from Zeus’ head, after the latter had swallowed her mother, the goddess Metis, because, as it had been predicted to him that his children by her would overthrow him.

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►Conclusion:

Metis, understood as a type of  practical wisdom, is commonly found in Greek Myths and Literature. In all its facets and faces of the same phenomenon lies a peculiar kind of behavior. More specifically: the extreme attention, observation, flexibility and creativity to sort out things, under certain “special” circumstances.

However, despite its relevance, Metis as type of Intelligent ability has been also relegated, criticized and even despised.

Plato intentionally ignored it, keeping it aside in his Gnoseological Theory. In turn, he enthroned the discursive Episteme, clearly much more acceptable to him, as he considered that Episteme was related to the highest degree of Knowledge.

Plato´s ideal of knowledge was sternly rational and hence: Apollonian. He made sure to suppress any “intuitive” shade that might somehow darken the diaphanous light of Reason and Episteme. Indeed, as pointed out before, Plato despised practical knowledge basically because it did not depend on Dialectical Reason (Noesis) and it seemed to be linked to the body and senses, therefore to the so-called “Dionysiac” forms.

Suffice it to recall that for Nietzsche, the Apollonian-Dionysian Dichotomy, (“The Birth of Tragedy”. 1872) represented the opposition between structured, geometric forces; and fluctuating, creative, irregular forms; respectively. Nietzsche contrasted the cerebral Apollo with his half-brother, the hedonistic Dionysus. Apollo, as the sun-god, represents light, clarity, and form, whereas Dionysus, as the wine-god, represents drunkenness and ecstasy.

However, back to Plato, it is worth noting that certain Dionysiac forces still seem to be present in his dialogues. Most times in the forms of myths or allegories. 

We could conclude that Episteme and Metis are different types of intelligences.Episteme is rigid, dialectic and Apollonian, while Metis might be quite unpredictable in its reasonings and linked to Dionysus. But despite this, they complement each other. We´d rather say the ideal entails not a dichotomy but, instead, a conjunction of abilities. 

Apollo (on The Left) & Dionysus (on The Right), representing the duality of Arts… And Intelligence. Apollo=Episteme. Dionysus=Metis.-


♠About José Cerbera:

José is a Spanish philosopher and blogger. In his own words: “I am a restless and curious being who believes in the religion of books and their healing power. But without forgetting that the mystery of existence isn´t contained in any book. I have studied Philosophy and that led me to distrust everything. Later on, I believed in me. Soon after, in the World Itself and what goes beyond it because it just boundless”. Please check out José´s blog: “El Ritual de las Palabras”. Thank you, José! ⭐️💫.

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José Ignacio Cervera. Click to visit José´s blog.-

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♠Links Post:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metis_(mythology)
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanisMetis.html
https://ritualdelaspalabras.wordpress.com/2017/04/09/las-artimanas-de-la-inteligencia/
https://socialecologies.wordpress.com/2016/02/23/metis-cunning-intelligence-in-greek-thought/
http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/2255/1/e_bracke_thesis.pdf
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/episteme-techne/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphemus
https://locvsamoenvs.wordpress.com/2014/12/26/homers-odyssey-12181-201-siren-song/
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“Greek Myths and Graffiti Murals”: “Collaboration With Resa McConaghy”⭐:

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⇒About This Post. Abstract:

The following article is composed of two sections, each one of them including murals from Argentina and Canada, respectively. This post aims to analyze with a with a free, but still judiciously, well-founded criteria how certain mythological greek themes and characters might be recurrent, despite time and even against it.

As Resa and I found some graffitis which seemed to have mythological and even philosophical equivalents we decided we wanted to try to show those connections. Resa´s mural is from the University of Toronto (Toronto, Canada) whilst mine are from The Planetarium (Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina). With that being said, we just wanted to say that, after finding many similarities, we are quite pleased with the outcome. Both of, Resa and I believe the convergences are striking. And being so, they broaden and deepen the value of the immortal Ancient Greek Legacy.

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⇒Section I. Murals: The Planetarium:🇦🇷

The Galileo Galilei planetarium, commonly known as Planetario, is located in Parque Tres de Febrero in the Palermo district of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The building was officially opened to the public on April 5, 1968. It consists of a cylindrical framework with independent projectors for the Moon, the Sun and the visible planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) and two spheres in the extremes that project 8,900 stars, constellations and nebulas.
Nowadays the Planetarium is surrounded by a thin sheet metal with many murals on it. We´ll present here some of them, aiming to find mythological  and philosophical corollaries.
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⇒Eros and Psyche… And the Planetarium above them!:

 
This graffiti is quite the finding. It is based on an original painting “The abduction of Psyche” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1894). 
The artist included a Planetarium above the couple.
 
According to the greek myth Aphrodite was jealous due to men’s admiration for Psyche, so she asked her son, Eros, to poison men’ souls in order to kill off their desire for Psyche. But Eros fell in love with Psyche. Thus, against his mother´s wishes, he asked the west wind, Zephyr, to waft her to his palace.
They consummated their love that same night. But for that Eros had to make Psyche believe that he was an ugly beast, as the Oracle had told her parents that Psyche would marry an ugly beast whose face she would never be able to see. And apparently she firmly believed so!…
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⇒The Horned goat with human hands:

 
This mural with goat head and human hands might remind us of the constellation Capricornus .
Its name is Latin for “horned goat” or “goat horn” or “having horns like a goat’s”.
This constellation protected by Hestia, represents Pan, the god of the wild and shepherds. The myth tells us that, in order to escape Typhon, Pan cast himself into the river, making the lower part of his body look like a fish, and the rest a goat: Zeus, admiring his shrewdness, put this shape among the constellations .
However, in this mural, we lack of the sea elements… But the resemblance between hands and fins couldn´t go unnoticed, either way.
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⇒The Bull Surrounded by Snakes:


This mural seem to evoke the Great Greek Bull. It could be linked to the Minotaur.
 
According to the respective myth, after Pasiphae (the daughter of Helios, the Sun, by the eldest of the Oceanids Perse) become impregnated by a white bull, she gave birth to a sort of hybrid child, the bull-headed Minotaur.
 
Angered with his wife, Minos imprisoned the minotaur in the labyrinth of Crete in Knossos. Presumably, Minos was one of the three sons from the union of Europa and Zeus; when Zeus was in the form of a bull.

As to snakes, let´s remember the rod of Asclepius, God of Medicine and Apollo´s son. It symbolizes the healing arts by combining the serpent, which in shedding its skin is a symbol of rebirth and fertility. The Asclepius Wand, often confused with the Caduceus wand of Hermes, is the symbol of the medical profession.

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⇒Tiempo- Time:

 
The words on this mural mean: Time.
But what is exactly time. St Augustine of Hippo says in his “Confessions”: “What then is time? If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks, I do not know”… Time is such an elusive concept, indeed!.
In Greek mythology, Chronos was the personification of time, not to be confused with Cronus, the Titan and father of Zeus.
The Greeks had two different words for time: Chronos refers to numeric or chronological time, while another word kairos refers to the more qualitative concept of the right or opportune moment. The figure of Chronos was typically portrayed as a wise old man with a long grey beard: Father Time.
Furthermore, the Horae or Hours were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural flow of time, generally portrayed as personifications of nature in its different seasonal aspects, and with the cycle of the seasons themselves symbolically described as the dance of the Horae.
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⇒Number 8. Toward Infinity… and beyond!:

This mural is certainly esoteric. The eyes, placed in circular shape, surround the central number eight (8).

Eight (8) is the Number of the perfection, the infinity. In mathematics the symbol of the infinity is represented by a 8 laid down.

The Pythagoreans believed that number 8 was the symbol of love and friendship, prudence and rational thinking. . It was the Pythagoreans who held that there are in man eight organs of knowledge; sense, fantasy, art, opinion, prudence, science, wisdom, and mind.

The person who actually introduced the infinity symbol was John Wallis, in 1655. This symbol is sometimes called the Lemniscate. It presumably evolved from the Etruscan numeral for 1000, which looked like this: CIƆ. There is another theory that he actually derived the infinity symbol from omega (ω), the last letter of the Greek alphabet. 

Ouroboros.

The ouroboros symbol, showing a a snake twisted into a horizontal figure eight (8) and biting its own tail, is also said to be a most plausible basis for the infinity symbol because it is a fitting depiction of endlessness.

As to the eyes in this mural, we could think of the Eye of Providence Symbol (which appears in the USA dollar bill). It represents the eye of God, the singular divine power that has created the entire universe. The eye is most times enclosed in a triangle. At times, the Eye is also depicted as surrounded by clouds or bursts of light. Both of these images are representative of holiness and divine glory and so, here too, the symbol signifies that the Almighty is keeping a watchful eye on His creation.

The Eye of Providence Symbol.

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⇒Section II. Murals: University of Toronto: 🇨🇦

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The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen’s Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King’s College. It comprises twelve colleges, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs.
The mural in question is in an underpass that runs from Hart House Circle under Queen’s Park Crescent West to Wellesley Street. Resa came across this mural as she walked under Queen’s Park Crescent. She went by Hart House and exited using the King’s Park Circle. In the slide show below you can see some photographs of the location and buildings. The mural comes soon after!. 
About Resa Mc Conaghy:
Resa is a canadian artist, costume designer and author. 
She hosts two blogs: Graffiti Lux and Murals and Art Gowns.
You can find her version of this post here. Furthermore, Resa has written a book, “Nine Black Lives, available on Amazon. Find Resa on Twitter, too!.
(Disclaimer: All murals photographs and photographs from University of Toronto were taken by Resa and featured on her blog Graffiti Lux and Murals. © Resa McConaghy. 2017). Please check out Resa´s post regarding this collaboration here.
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⇒Damarchus / Lycanthropeis or Werewolf Man-Wolf:

This graffiti could be linked to the Werewolf Man-wolf, or Lycanthropeis. Meaning, a mythological human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf, either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction.
A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology.
For instance, Herodotus, wrote that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape. 
Furthermore, we have the story of Damarchus. He was a victorious Olympic boxer from Parrhasia (Arcadia) who is said to have changed his shape into that of a wolf at the festival of Lycaea, only to become a man again after ten years. The festival of Lycaea involved human sacrifice to Zeus. A young boy was killed and then consumed by one of the participants, in this case by Damarchus, and as a result Zeus would transform the cannibal into a wolf.
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On the Left: A man wearing a wolf-skin. Attic red-figure vase, c. 460 BC. On the Right: Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf, engraving by Hendrik Goltzius. 16th century.

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⇒The Woman With an Extra Hand:

Following the hindu mythology pattern, according to which goddesses have many hands, we could conclude that having more than two hands is a mark of Divinity. Humans have two arms, so someone with multiple becomes special and out of the league. More hands at times also represents more strength.The multiplicity of hands also emphasizes the power and ability to perform several acts at the same time. 

As to number three, it represents the Holy Trinity. From a philosophical perspective, number  three is symbolic of the reconciliation of opposites, as with Hegel‘s dialectic: “thesis + antithesis = synthesis”.
Besides, it is both a lunar and a solar number.
The moon has three major phases – the two crescents and the full moon, while the sun has three primary points in its existence: the low winter solstice; the high summer solstice, and the two equinoxes of March and September.

⇒The Kholkikos Drakon or Colchian Dragon:


 
The Kholkikos Drakon or (Colchian Dragon) was the ever awake serpent that guarded the Golden Fleece in a grove sacred to Ares in Kolkhis. When the Argonauts came to aquire the Fleece, they had to get past it. There are two theories as towards how they past the Drakon, either Medea put the monster to sleep so Jason could grab the fleece while it slumbered or Jason slew it. There is also a belief that the monster swallowed Jason and then regurgitated him thanks to the power of Medea, so that Jason could then slay the beast. Different cultural traditions have portrayed dragons with reptilian or serpentine traits so that it may seem to resemble cobras, crocodiles or lizards. The word ‘dragon’ traces its origin in the Greek word ‘drakon’ that means a huge serpent or a giant sea fish.
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⇒Apollo (AKA previously Helios) and his Chariot:

Before Artemis became goddess of the moon, the Titaness Selene owned the Moon chariot, which she drove across the sky at night. Soon after, Artemis was the legatee of the carriage. In the same way, Apollo received the Chariot of the Sun, once Helios became identified with him.
Helios (Apollo), the Sun god, drives his chariot across the sky each day while Selene (Artemis) is also said to drive across the heavens. And, while the sun chariot has four horses, Selene´s (Artemis´) usually has two, described as “snow-white” by Ovid. 

As to the horse symbolism, it is often known as a solar symbol. Sometimes, horses are related to the sun, moon, and water. It acts as the mediator between Earth and Heaven. Horse symbolizes power, grace, beauty, nobility, strength, and freedom.

The woman looking at Apollo (former Helios) could be his twin sister, Artemis (Former Selene). Artemis was the Goddess of Hunting and of  Goddess of the Moon. In classical times, Selene was often identified with Artemis, much as her brother, Helios, was identified with Apollo. Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate, and all three were regarded as Lunar Goddesses, although only Selene was considered a personification of the moon itself.

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►Links Post:
https://goo.gl/9M3yb1
https://goo.gl/25jrss
https://goo.gl/BN7KEA
https://goo.gl/N0hD0x
https://goo.gl/z0y3Mr
https://goo.gl/rhZkZj
https://goo.gl/As9dYy

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►Philosophy: “Plato´s Cave and Fifteen Million Merits” (Black Mirror):

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Hello readers! This is a post in collaboration with Christy Birmingham, from Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire. You might wonder how the idea of writing this post came up. Well, basically, I had begun watching Season Three of Black Mirror, which was recently released on Netflix. I told Christy how much I liked it, and, from that moment, we started chatting about the series. Soon after, Christy watched “The Entire History of You”, which is the third episode of the first season, followed by “Fifteen Million Merits” (the second episode of the same season).

We discussed both episodes. And we decided to do a post on the latter. Therefore, this complete post was a result of the exchanges of points of views. But each one of us focused on particular themes.

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Christy Birmingham

Christy wrote about Abi (before and after “Hot Shot”), the concept of being overweight (as it is socially considered and shown in this episode), and added the final thoughts. She also had a major task proofreading the entire article and helping me sort out doubts along the process. For all this, I wish to take the opportunity to convey my gratitude to Christy.

As to me, I wrote other parts of the review, the allegory of the cave, and the ending section concerning the existing analogies between Plato´s Allegory of the Cave and this episode.

With that being said, keep in mind that you can watch this episode of Black Mirror on Netflix or here. Thanks for dropping by and we hope you enjoy the reading. 

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⇒The Allegory of the Cave:

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is written as a dialogue between Plato’s teacher Socrates and Plato’s brother Glaucon at the beginning of  “The Republic”, Book VII (514a–520a).

In the allegory, Plato likens people to prisoners chained in an underground cave, unable to turn their heads.

All they can see is the wall of the cave, upon which shadows of the world above are thrown.

The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. These so-called “puppeteers” are just people outside the cave who walk along this walkway, who presumably carry things on their heads. Hence, what the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see, believing that the shadows of objects are real objects.

One of the prisoners then is freed from their bindings and leaves the cave.

Blinded by the light, he is unable to see anything and longs for the familiar darkness. But, eventually, his eyes adjust to the light. Finally, he beholds the sun, which is the main source of knowledge. 

As he becomes used to his new surroundings, he realizes that his former view of reality was wrong.

But he is despised when he returns to the cave. Those who never left the cave ridicule him and swear never to go into the light lest they be blinded as well.

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The allegory of the Cave explains Plato´s Theory of Forms.

The Theory of Forms maintains that two distinct levels of reality exist: the visible world of sights and sounds that we inhabit and the intelligible world of Forms that stands above the visible world and gives it being. The visible world or World of Appearances consists of Images and Visible Things. But images have less entity than visible things (tangible things). In the Intelligible World we have the mathematical objects (not important for this analysis) and The Forms. 

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

For Plato, the Forms were basically the Ideas (also called Essences behind the visible Things).

Forms are not mental entities, nor even mind-dependent. They are independently existing entities whose existence and nature are graspable only by the mind, even though they do not depend on being so grasped in order to exist. Things are “useful” because as they allow us to recognize the Idea or Form behind and Beyond them. 

An example concerns the Idea of Beauty. All the beautiful things we can see are beautiful only because they participate in the more general Form of Beauty. This Form of Beauty is itself invisible, eternal, and unchanging, unlike the things in the visible world that can grow old and lose their beauty. This applies to all objects, as they are ideas for them too. Natural objects, such as trees and animals each link back to their respective Form or Idea. As to manufactured objects, that´s a different issue as Plato would rather consider them “artificial”; meaning “images of Things” (and so that was the case for Plato with all artistic creations, for instance).

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⇒Fifteen Million Merits:

Black Mirror is a British television series created by Charlie Brooker that features dark, speculative fiction and examines modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies.

This series has three seasons so far, and it streams on Netflix. 

Fifteen Million Merits is the second episode of Season One of the series.

The episode depicts a society in which people have to generate the energy that runs the entire society, pedaling on stationary bikes for hours at a time. This is a world where technological pleasure and instant gratification always depend on computers, where the real world and the virtual world are completely intertwined and almost everything natural has been replaced by technology. 

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“Fifteen Million Merits” has all of these elements. It is also a satirical approach to the capitalist society from a technological perspective. Characters are mainly clients and their “money” is a fungible value. Not money, though, but “merits” instead. The idea of merit, rather, seems to respond to the demands of a society in which  the Division of Labor is no longer needed. 

So, basically, everyone plays the same role. Each individual is both a creator and consumer of manufacturing inputs. Besides, leisure time and working time are not clearly divided. While people work (pedalling to generate energy), they are allowed to watch television.

Everyone wears grey clothes, except those who clean the place, who wear yellow and are most times bullied and even depicted in video games as “targets” to shoot.

The cleaners wear bright yellow outfits, which is in sharp contrast to the blasé grey sweat suits of the peddlers. Look closely at the cleaners, who carry dust bins and brooms, and notice that they are all overweight.

Soon it becomes clear in the TV episode that their weight relates to why they are cleaners rather than peddlers, and that being a cleaner is a job that is beneath the people on the bikes. For example, one very excitable man on a bike taunts the workers whenever they come around him. He mocks the outfit and weight of one male cleaner, who never talks back to him.

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It seems that when a person becomes overweight, they are removed from the bike work and put to work cleaning the floor instead.

There are many issues being brought up here. Firstly, the way society is organized is that overweight people are considered lower-class citizens. Fitness is considered a strength while being large is symbolic of the weak.

Also, there is obviously bullying going on here, from a “higher” class of society to a “lower” one. Being bullied for a person’s weight is something that happens today, but Fifteen Million Merits takes it to a whole new level in the future.

Aside from talking down to the cleaners, the people in grey outfits also shoot at the yellow figures who appear in video games. The yellow people who look like the floor cleaners are part of games that are similar to “Call of Duty”. They are shot at by the peddlers on the bike and the shooting games continue when the peddlers return to their homes too.

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Furthermore, if people are not working at same sole task, they are locked in their prison cell of video screens that cover every surface from floor to ceiling, pumping out an endless stream of inane comedy, reality TV and softcore porn. It is worth noting though that under these televisual circumstances, there is no place for intimacy. Being spectators of TV shows means that you appear in the show as an avatar who makes your reactions public .

We could assume that this “world” is the result of some sort of energy crisis. Hence, the population is needed to power their lights instead. Their existence is pretty miserable to contemplate; so much of the energy is used to distract the same citizenry as they perform their mundane tasks.

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The story has two main characters. Bing and Abi.

Bing is confronted with an artificial, media-saturated world, and yet he is hungry for something more.

Like most dystopian stories, he gets a hint that there could be something more when he meets the pretty Abi, and soon after he hears her singing, he falls for her.

Her innocence and naïvety are attractive to Bing, but her singing hints at something even deeper.  In his eyes, her beauty is something that goes beyond everything,  in a world covered with dark multimedia screens (black mirrors).

Even if they don´t have physical contact (there is an occasion when they briefly hold hands in an elevator, though), there is something magical between them, a spark of reality, so to speak.

There is symbol which seems to represent their bond. The little penguin, which recurrently appears.  It probably represents “something lost” (maybe Nature as it seems the characters are locked and pent-up in a “fake” world where real things are barely available).

This little animal appears many times throughout the episode as an origami penguin, carefully folded by Abi. Besides, Abi´s avatar wears a dress with penguins on it. And, at the end of the episode, the penguin motif takes on a quite heart-breaking significance at the episode’s conclusion, as Bing has a statue of a penguin in his luxurious but minimalist penthouse.
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Abi and Bing´s relationship is good. But, that’s just the beginning of the story. In a world where everything is a spectacle, where everything can be objectified, repackaged and sold back to an always hungry viewership, what happens with feelings and with human experiences?.

That´s when the we learn about “Hot Shot”, as an equivalent to “The X Factor” or “American Idol” in this episode, which seems to be the entrance to fame and a life free of duties (the bike).

“Hot Shot” depicts pretty much a “roman circus”.

abi2The committee on the TV-show “Hot Shot” consist of three judges named “Wraith”, “Hope”, and “Charity”. The theological virtues of Christianity are “Faith”, “Hope” and “Charity”. These were traditionally the path to follow in order to attain salvation. The change from “Faith” to “Wraith” is justified because our faith is now on the virtual world. The new salvation is to be successful, to obtain a more real virtuality.

Bing is so charmed by Abi´s song that he spends his dead brother’s 15 million merits to get her on “Hot Shot”, where she’s an instant sensation. Drugged by some sort of milk called “Cuppliance” (which is a composed word, resulting of the sum of “cup” and “compliance”), she goes along with Judge Wraith and becomes a porn star, in a wrenching twist.

Celebrity culture entails a sort of moral nihilism, the show in question leads to a dark voyeurism, which goes deep into other people’s humiliation, pain, weakness, and betrayal. Spectators appear as avatars, a crowded, anonymous audience facing the stage, staring at the contestants while they are just watching the screen in their cells (and represented as avatars in the audience).

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The crowd starts to chant for Abi to take the spot offered to her by the judge to become a porn star. In this case, when Abi is on stage, having drunk the “Cuppliance” beverage, she gives in to the social pressure of the crowd. While she is uncomfortable with the idea of becoming a porn star, as shown by her hesitation, the crowd’s chanting become gets stronger and louder.

Abi is being bullied. After all, the floor cleaners are not the only ones bullied in this society. She is being harassed digitally, which we can already see happening in real life today with death threats on Facebook and Twitter, for example. We soon learn the negative impacts of intimidation when we see the career that Abi ends up feeling forced to choose.

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In addition to the bullying, Abi is also submitting to something bigger than herself, which happens in many societies today. Whether you call it peer pressure (the crowd) or the pressure of authority (the judges), or a combination of the two, this Black Mirror episode takes the influence of others to the extreme. She wants approval, as so many people do in the world today.

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But Abi suffers terribly for getting this approval. She enters the porn world, as the judges and audience both encouraged her to do, and soon videos of her being demoralized by men are flashed across digital screens everywhere. While she no longer has to ride the bike all day, her new role is demeaning, including an image on the screens of a man putting his finger into her mouth and she is physically beneath him, which shows he has the power over her, body and all.

Abi is now officially part of the “Wraith Babes” stream that has “the hottest girls in the nastiest situations” as the announcer’s voice on the stream repeatedly says when it is shown on screens. So sad, as no girl says that she wants to grow up to star in pornography. Instead, Abi – like some women in today’s world – have been pressured into doing degrading sexual acts to please others. It is a depressing look at women’s bodies being exploited for the instant gratification of other people.

This example of Ali is taken to the extreme in a few ways. Firstly, she is viewed by Bing as being pure and innocent, including having an angelic voice; she is the ultimate example of peer pressure’s consequences. Also, the pornography featuring her is spread across huge digital screens for everyone to see, rather than being viewed on private websites or seedy theaters.

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Once Abi is caught in the porn universe, the ads featuring her torture a broken Bing. He destroys his room and sets upon a revenge mission, earning another shot on the show and giving a rough speech with a shard of glass pointed at his neck. The sequence in question is perfectly done.

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It is mostly an act of rebellion that leaves the audience numb and silent until  Judge Hope proclaims it the most heartfelt thing they’ve ever seen on the show. Soon after the Judge´s evaluation, the audience begin to cheer and clap hands in a standing ovation.

Bings´s speech is a little bit of the major irony here. He speaks out the truth (maybe because he cheats and avoid drinking the beverage Abi had when she performed, as he had hidden the dispenser under his bed).

Judge Hope says he is deeply moved by his words and offers him to have his own show twice a week for half an hour each. And Bing, persuaded by the judge and audience, accepts. 

So, ultimately he also sells himself out. In other words, he becomes entertainment himself. Speaking trite truths about consumerism and vociferating sold out prejudices concerning non-genuine life. While using the glass in his throat while he speaks, in a threatening tone as if he is going to commit suicide. 

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⇒Concluding Thoughts on Fifteen Million Merits:

As with the other Black Mirror episodes, Fifteen Million Merits is a smart hour of science fiction television. It shows a dark side of technology and the excesses that the world could come to in the future if electronic devices are not used wisely by humans. It could wind up that the world is short on energy, that we cannot get away from digital screens, and that bullying is a bigger side-effect of a tech-savvy lifestyle than ever before.

But, perhaps we have to squirm in our seats watching this kind of television to be able to make more sense of the world, our place in it, and how to use technology responsibly in the future.

Or, it could just be that we recognize that technology can also challenge our ways of thinking about the future, human nature, and electronic gadgets. What we know for sure is that we do not plan to buy or wear a grey sweat suit anytime soon.

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⇒Fifteen Million Merits and Plato´s Allegory of the Cave:

The interrelations between this episode and Plato´s Allegory of the Cave could be summarized as follows.

People´s approach of Reality is given basically through images of things. These things are screen images, and all sorts of images most times on the screens, of the cells or on TVs in front of the Bikes.

People are represented by avatars, meaning by images of themselves, the merits are charged to those avatars, as if it was a video game.

Most importantly, people are prisoners of a cave.

They live locked up there. Everyone has his own cells, in which each perimeter consists of screens.

The screens  continuously emit shows and do so unless it is the night. 

If the prisoner wants to watch a show, he´ll have to pay for it. And if he wants to skip ads, he´ll have to do the same.

The main shows are hosted and owned by the Judges of the show “Hot Shot” (Judge Charity, Judge Hope and Judge Wraith). So, basically, the Judges are somehow the puppeteers.

Bing is the “released prisoner”. After Abi´s performance and after she enters the Porn Industry (hired by Judge Wraith), he begins to see images as things, so to speak. The scene in the elevator, in which the main characters hold hands, is quite meaningful and one could even say it is a hinge moment.

Bing´s speech in “Hot Shot” shows that he is somehow the philosopher. The one who has a sharp intellect. 

Bing’s awakening makes evident the fact that the system is a huge lie and that the ideals proposed by power are alienating people instead of making them happier. Having seen the light, which is paradoxically darkness as it has to do with Abi´s prostitution, he wants to tell his former fellow prisoners about his experiences, as a sort of revolutionary leader would do. He tries to raise awareness.   

But, the irony here is that even if Judge Hope gives him the credit for his “moving” speech, whilst highlighting the importance of being “genuine”, he is not taken seriously, at least in the expected terms.

Judge Hope (who would be a sort of Crowd Pleaser) takes him to his own  field and beats him, once there.

Bing becomes an entertainer, and of the system he was defying. Light beyond the screens is unattainable as we can see in the last sequence of the episode, when he looks through a big window something that could be both thing: a real landscape or… even something more sinister: a landscape digitalized image on yet another screen.

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You can watch this episode of Black Mirror here and/or here. 

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Links Post:
https://goo.gl/bJ7PDQ
https://goo.gl/5bk0NS
https://goo.gl/9vq3JW
https://goo.gl/oO4nKy
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►Greek Mythology: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

 guarda_griega1_2Cortege Dionysus

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Dionysus is best known in Greek mythology as the god of wine, but he has also been associated with peace, agriculture, law, civilization, and most especially, the theatre. In Thrace he was known as Eleutherios, “the Liberator,” or Liber Pater, “the Free One,” because he freed people through drunken ectasy

The place of origin of the Hellenic Dionysian Mysteries is unknown, but they almost certainly first came to Greece with the importation of wine, which is widely believed to have originated, in the West, around 6000 BC in one of two places, either in the Zagros Mountains (the borderlands of Mesopotamia and Persia, both with their own rich wine culture since then) or from the ancient wild vines on the mountain slopes of Libya / North Africa (the source of early Egyptian wine from around 2500 BC, and home of many ecstatic rites), quite probably from both

Wine probably also entered Greece over land from Asia Minor. But it was most likely in Minoan Crete that the eclectic ‘wine cult’, that would become the Dionysian Mysteries, first emerged

The basic principle beneath the original initiations, other than the seasonal death-rebirth theme supposedly common to all vegetation cults (such as the Osirian, which closely parallels the Dionysian), was one of spirit possession and atavism. This in turn was closely associated with the effects of the wine. The spirit possession involved the invocation of spirits by means of the bull roarer, followed by communal dancing to drum and pipe, with characteristic movements (such as the backward head flick) found in all trance inducing cults.

Unlike many trance cults however, the Dionysian rites were primarily atavistic, that is the participant was possessed by animal spirits and bestial entities, rather than intelligible divinities, and may even “transform into animals”. A practise preserved by the riteof the “goat and panther men” of the “heretical” Aissaoua Sufi cult of North Africa, and remembered in the satyrs and sileni of the Dionysian procession, and perhaps even the “bull man”, or Minotaur, of the chthonic Minoan labyrinth.

The purpose of this atavism is controversial, some see it simply as a Greek saturnalian catharsis, a ritualised release of repressed elements of civilised psychology, and temporary inversion, in order to preserve it, others see it as a return to the “chaotic” sources of being and essentially a reaction against civilisation, while yet others regard it as a magical connection with chthonic powers

In the late 1800s A.D., the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche elaborated the dichotomy Apollonian- Dionysian in his book “The Birth of Tragedy”, arguing that the Apollonian principal corresponded to the principium individuationis, the principal of individualization, a concept coined by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. This is because rational thought defines and thus compartmentalizes forms into different structures.

Nietzsche rather identified with the Dionysian principal that corresponded to Schopenhauer’s conception of Will, the principal of submerging oneself into a greater whole. Music, drunkenness, dancing, and madness were considered Dionysian characteristics because they apply to the instinctive, chaotic, and ecstatic side of the human mind. 

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“The Initiation Chamber”. Villa of The Mysteries. Pompeii. (79 CE).-

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►”Dyonisiac Frieze, Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii” (In English):

►”Pompeii: Villa dei Misteri” (In Italian):

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•Further Information: “The Villa of the Mysteries” or “Villa dei Misteri” is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 400 metres northwest of Pompeii, southern Italy.

The Villa is named for the paintings in one room of the residence. This space is decorated with very fine frescoes, dated 79 B.C. Although the actual subject of the frescoes is hotly debated, the most common interpretation of the images is scenes of the initiation of a woman into a special cult of Dionysus, mystery cult  hat required specific rites and rituals to become a member.

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►Gallery: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
http://www.lost-history.com/mysteries.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_of_the_Mysteries
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dionysiac-frieze-villa-of-the-mysteries.html
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►Greek Mythology: “The Eleusinian Mysteries”:

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"Proserpine" (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

“Proserpine / Persephone” (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

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The Eleusinian Mysteries are related to a greek religious festival held each year at Eleusis, fourteen miles northwest of Athens. It  was celebrated in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter (whose name means “spelt mother” being “spelt” is a variety of wheat.)

The festivity took place each year, when it was time for the crops to be sown, in the month of Boedromion (September).

It all stems from the myth of Demeter and her daughter Persephone

Demeter was the Greek Goddess of the Harvest, while Persephone was the Goddess of  wheats.

The conflict was originated when Hades, God of the Underworld, abducted Persephone and took her down into the underworld. 

After that, Demeter searched the world looking for her daughter, and while doing this, she neglected her duties and let the earth go barren. 

As she couldn’ t find her, she finally decided to rest by a well in the city of Eleusis. 

There, disguised as an old woman, she cared for the queen’s son, baptizing him nightly in fire so that he would be immortal. 

Demeter later on  taught the queen’s son, who was called Triptolemos, the art of agriculture.

As a reward for having protected the prince Triptolemos, eleusian citizens began to build a temple in their city, as a tribute to Demeter.

Demeter’s attempts to find her daughter were in vain. Besides Demeter’s grief, and plants were dried, the crops died and the earth turn out into something sterile

The gods were worried and Zeus, who had witnessed the abduction, finally intervened. 

He did by persuading his brother, Hades to return Persephone to her mother. Hades agreed but before that he made sure to tricked Persephone into eating some pomegranate seeds and, if one ate in the land of the dead, one remained with the dead. 

As she had only eaten some, however, it was agreed she would spend half the year with Hades in the underworld and half with her mother on earth. 

That’s why while Demeter remained on earth with her mother Demeter, she caused the world to be fruitful while when she was in the underworld with Hades, the plants withered and died; thus the seasons were explained.

Another interesting detail is that when Persephone was abducted by Hades in the underworld, her name was changed to Kore. When she emerged from the underworld she recovered her original name,  Persephone (“she who brings doom”).-

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•The Ceremonies: The Mysteries began with the march of the mystai (initiates) in solemn procession from Athens to Eleusis. The rites that they then performed in the Telesterion, or Hall of Initiation, were and remain a secret. 

Those who were to be initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries had to go through preliminary rites of purification and instruction before they would be allowed to participate in the final revelations at Eleusis. 

 The mysteries were divided into the Lesser and Greater mysteries.  

The Lesser mysteries were preparatory to the Greater, involving purifications and perhaps some instruction or other rites, and they were celebrated near Athens,  in the month of Anthesterion (March).

The initial stages involved physical rites which were preparatory for the spiritual rites at Eleusis  After a series of further ritual actions, the initiate was ready for the myesis, the first level of initiation.

The Greater Mysteries began on 14th Boedromion (September/October), when the “sacred things,” carried in baskets, were brought from Eleusis to Athens by the Eleusinian priestesses escorted by epheboi (young Athenians of military age).  The following day, the hierophant opened the festival, making an announcement (prorrhesis) that those “who are not of pure hands or speak an incomprehensible tongue,” that is, those stained by human blood and non-Greek speaking barbarians, were not permitted to participate.  Other than these exclusions, anyone–including slaves, foreigners, men and women–could participate in the mysteries. A procession, named the Sacred Way , began at Athens on the morning of 19th of Boedromion and ended that evening in Eleusis.

Priestesses brought back the sacred things, with a procession of dancing and chanting initiates, perhaps almost in state of ecstasy

Only the initiates were allowed to proceed further into the cult area, which was dedicated to Hades.  The mysteries took place in the Telestrion, a large building which could hold a few thousand people.  The only ones permitted to enter were the mystai, those entering for the first time, and the epoptai, for whom it would be at least their second experience.

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•Literary Sources and Philosophical Notes:

The mythical basis for many of the mystery rites are accounted for in the “Hymn to Demeter”, which is part of the Homeric Hymns collection of poems

Those ones are thirty-three anonymous ancient greek Hymns celebrating individual gods. The hymns are “Homeric” in the sense that they employ the same epic meter as “the Iliad, use many similar formulas and are couched in the same dialect.

In Plato’s dialogue “The Symposium” he overtly establishes an analogy to the mysteries at Eleusis near the end of Diotima’s speech (as relayed by Socrates), when he has her say that “even you, Socrates, could probably come to be initiated [myētheiēs] into these rites of love [erōtika].  But as for the purpose of these rites when they are done correctly–that is the final and highest mystery” (209e-210a). 

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“Blessed is the mortal on earth who has seen these rites / But the uninitiated who has no share in them never / Has the same lot once dead in the dreary darkness”. (“Hymn To Demeter”. Lines 480/482).-

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 ►Gallery: “The Eleusinian Mysteries, held  in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter”:

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►Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleusinian_Mysteries
http://www.ancient.eu.com/article/32/
http://www.classics.upenn.edu/myth/php/hymns/index.php?page=eleusis
http://www.theoi.com/Georgikos/EleusiniosTriptolemos.html
http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/O28.2.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/ebm/ebm05.htm#page_31
http://www.lsu.edu/artsci/groups/voegelin/society/2005%20Papers/Steven%20McGuire.shtml

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►Mythology / Philosophy: 

“The Lost City of Atlantis”, according to Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”:

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Plato’s two dialogues pertaining to Atlantis are “Timaeus” and “Critias”, written in 360 BC. These are the earliest known written records about the Lost Continent of Atlantis, all other written references to Atlantis have been written since, and have been based on these writings by Plato.

“Timaeus” and “Critias” are actually written in the form of dialogues between four main characters: Socrates (Greek philosopher, and Plato’s teacher), Critias (poet & historian), Timaeus (an Italian astronomer.), and Hermocrates (a general from Syracuse). All were real people.

The dialogue “Timaeus” includes only a passing reference to Atlantis, but the second writing, the Critias, has a much more in depth description of Atlantis leading upto it’s downfall. 

The fabled island-continent derives its name from the Titan Atlas. It was said to be out beyond the western headland where the immortal giant holds up the heavens by means of a pillar on his back.

•The Atlantis, as described by Plato:

Plato told the story of Atlantis around 360 B.C.

According to Plato, Atlantis was the domain of Poseidon, god of the sea. When Poseidon fell in love with a mortal woman, Cleito, he created a dwelling at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her.

Cleito gave birth to five sets of twin boys who became the first rulers of Atlantis. The island was divided among the brothers with the eldest, Atlas, first King of Atlantis, being given control over the central hill and surrounding areas.

At the top of the central hill, a temple was built to honor Poseidon which housed a giant gold statue of Poseidon riding a chariot pulled by winged horses. It was here that the rulers of Atlantis would come to discuss laws, pass judgments, and pay tribute to Poseidon.

The founders of Atlantis, he said, were half god and half human. They created a utopian civilization and became a great naval power. Their home was made up of concentric islands separated by wide moats and linked by a canal that penetrated to the center. The lush islands contained gold, silver, and other precious metals and supported an abundance of rare, exotic wildlife. There was a great capital city on the central island.

For generations the Atlanteans lived simple, virtuous lives. But slowly they began to change. Greed and power began to corrupt them. When Zeus saw the immorality of the Atlanteans he gathered the other gods to determine a suitable punishment and destroy them.

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•Destruction of the Atlantis:

The most popular theories as to the destruction of Atlantis are exactly what Plato described, earthquakes and floods. The floods more than likely attributable to the tidal waves that would have been caused by the earthquakes. 

Another theory is that there was a volcano on the island that errupted with such force that the island was buried in molten lava. 

For Plato, Atlantis was an island, supposedly the size of Libya and Asia Minor combined, located in the Atlantic beyond Gibraltar and due to its central position a stepping stone by which travelers could reach other islands and the opposing land mass.

•Where was the city of Atlantis placed?:

There are many theories about where Atlantis was—in the Mediterranean: Thera,  Chales Pellegrino and Walter Friedrich, Cyprus (Robert Sarmast ), Central or South America (Ivar Zapp and George Erikson ) even under what is now Antarctica (Colin Wilson). [Note: You can check out ten possible locations here].

Many believe that Plato was basing his account of Atlantis on the history of the Minoan civilization, which would coincide well with these new dates. The history of the Minoan civilization and the description of Atlantis have a suspicious amount in common at any rate.

Ballard says, the legend of Atlantis is a “logical” one since cataclysmic floods and volcanic explosions have happened throughout history, including one event that had some similarities to the story of the destruction of Atlantis. About 3,600 years ago, a massive volcanic eruption devastated the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea near Greece. At the time, a highly advanced society of Minoans lived on Santorini. The Minoan civilization disappeared suddenly at about the same time as the volcanic eruption.

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►”The Atlantis: Hypothetical Locations” (Map Gallery):

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►The Atlantis in Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”.

(Read the relevant excerpts):

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►Check out “Timaeus” excerpts with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

►Check out “Critias”‘ excerpt with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

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►Bonustrack: Video: “Atlantis by artist Monsu Desiderio”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mythweb.com/encyc/entries/atlantis.html
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/archaeology/atlantis/
http://www.mcmillinmedia.com/atlantean-geography/
http://unxplained-factor.com/critias.htm
http://unxplained-factor.com/timaeus.htm
http://luccav.com/2015/01/30/the-search-for-atlantis/
http://luccav.com/2015/01/16/the-elusive-location-of-atlantis-part-1/
http://luccav.com/2015/01/23/the-elusive-location-of-atlantis-part-2/
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►Last but not Least: Two Awards: 

Kolytyi from “Trifles” nominated me  for a Liebster Award. Thank you very much, dear blogger friend 😀

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate eleven (11)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Liebster Award.-

Liebster Award.-

 These are my eleven nominees for this award:

1) Kev´s Blog  2) En Humor arte 3) Autonomía en las formas 4Jet Eliot 5) London Senior 6) Unclee Tree 7Brushespapers 8) The Passion Dew 9) A solas con Caronte 10) Animasmundi11) Blog de Javier

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My  blogger friend, Caronte Moratalla from “A solas con Caronte” and my dear friend Verónica from “En Humor Arte” have both nominated me for the same award. Thanks a lot 🙂

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Premio sin premio logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Premio Sin Premio

Premio Sin Premio.-

  These are my ten nominees for this award:

1) Chesterton Blog 2) Sweet as a picture 3) Isaspi 4) Word Musing 5) A little bird tweets 6) Angelart Star 7) Imaginecontinua 8) Cruz del Sur 9) Diwata in Lalaland 10) Si vis pacem para bellum.

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Thanks for dropping by, fellow bloggers. Happy Thursday and best wishes, Aquileana/Amalia 😀

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