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►Philosophy: “Plato´s Cave and Fifteen Million Merits” (Black Mirror):

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Hello readers! This is a post in collaboration with Christy Birmingham, from Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire. You might wonder how the idea of writing this post came up. Well, basically, I had begun watching Season Three of Black Mirror, which was recently released on Netflix. I told Christy how much I liked it, and, from that moment, we started chatting about the series. Soon after, Christy watched “The Entire History of You”, which is the third episode of the first season, followed by “Fifteen Million Merits” (the second episode of the same season).

We discussed both episodes. And we decided to do a post on the latter. Therefore, this complete post was a result of the exchanges of points of views. But each one of us focused on particular themes.

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Christy Birmingham

Christy wrote about Abi (before and after “Hot Shot”), the concept of being overweight (as it is socially considered and shown in this episode), and added the final thoughts. She also had a major task proofreading the entire article and helping me sort out doubts along the process. For all this, I wish to take the opportunity to convey my gratitude to Christy.

As to me, I wrote other parts of the review, the allegory of the cave, and the ending section concerning the existing analogies between Plato´s Allegory of the Cave and this episode.

With that being said, keep in mind that you can watch this episode of Black Mirror on Netflix or here. Thanks for dropping by and we hope you enjoy the reading. 

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⇒The Allegory of the Cave:

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is written as a dialogue between Plato’s teacher Socrates and Plato’s brother Glaucon at the beginning of  “The Republic”, Book VII (514a–520a).

In the allegory, Plato likens people to prisoners chained in an underground cave, unable to turn their heads.

All they can see is the wall of the cave, upon which shadows of the world above are thrown.

The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. These so-called “puppeteers” are just people outside the cave who walk along this walkway, who presumably carry things on their heads. Hence, what the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see, believing that the shadows of objects are real objects.

One of the prisoners then is freed from their bindings and leaves the cave.

Blinded by the light, he is unable to see anything and longs for the familiar darkness. But, eventually, his eyes adjust to the light. Finally, he beholds the sun, which is the main source of knowledge. 

As he becomes used to his new surroundings, he realizes that his former view of reality was wrong.

But he is despised when he returns to the cave. Those who never left the cave ridicule him and swear never to go into the light lest they be blinded as well.

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The allegory of the Cave explains Plato´s Theory of Forms.

The Theory of Forms maintains that two distinct levels of reality exist: the visible world of sights and sounds that we inhabit and the intelligible world of Forms that stands above the visible world and gives it being. The visible world or World of Appearances consists of Images and Visible Things. But images have less entity than visible things (tangible things). In the Intelligible World we have the mathematical objects (not important for this analysis) and The Forms. 

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

For Plato, the Forms were basically the Ideas (also called Essences behind the visible Things).

Forms are not mental entities, nor even mind-dependent. They are independently existing entities whose existence and nature are graspable only by the mind, even though they do not depend on being so grasped in order to exist. Things are “useful” because as they allow us to recognize the Idea or Form behind and Beyond them. 

An example concerns the Idea of Beauty. All the beautiful things we can see are beautiful only because they participate in the more general Form of Beauty. This Form of Beauty is itself invisible, eternal, and unchanging, unlike the things in the visible world that can grow old and lose their beauty. This applies to all objects, as they are ideas for them too. Natural objects, such as trees and animals each link back to their respective Form or Idea. As to manufactured objects, that´s a different issue as Plato would rather consider them “artificial”; meaning “images of Things” (and so that was the case for Plato with all artistic creations, for instance).

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⇒Fifteen Million Merits:

Black Mirror is a British television series created by Charlie Brooker that features dark, speculative fiction and examines modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies.

This series has three seasons so far, and it streams on Netflix. 

Fifteen Million Merits is the second episode of Season One of the series.

The episode depicts a society in which people have to generate the energy that runs the entire society, pedaling on stationary bikes for hours at a time. This is a world where technological pleasure and instant gratification always depend on computers, where the real world and the virtual world are completely intertwined and almost everything natural has been replaced by technology. 

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“Fifteen Million Merits” has all of these elements. It is also a satirical approach to the capitalist society from a technological perspective. Characters are mainly clients and their “money” is a fungible value. Not money, though, but “merits” instead. The idea of merit, rather, seems to respond to the demands of a society in which  the Division of Labor is no longer needed. 

So, basically, everyone plays the same role. Each individual is both a creator and consumer of manufacturing inputs. Besides, leisure time and working time are not clearly divided. While people work (pedalling to generate energy), they are allowed to watch television.

Everyone wears grey clothes, except those who clean the place, who wear yellow and are most times bullied and even depicted in video games as “targets” to shoot.

The cleaners wear bright yellow outfits, which is in sharp contrast to the blasé grey sweat suits of the peddlers. Look closely at the cleaners, who carry dust bins and brooms, and notice that they are all overweight.

Soon it becomes clear in the TV episode that their weight relates to why they are cleaners rather than peddlers, and that being a cleaner is a job that is beneath the people on the bikes. For example, one very excitable man on a bike taunts the workers whenever they come around him. He mocks the outfit and weight of one male cleaner, who never talks back to him.

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It seems that when a person becomes overweight, they are removed from the bike work and put to work cleaning the floor instead.

There are many issues being brought up here. Firstly, the way society is organized is that overweight people are considered lower-class citizens. Fitness is considered a strength while being large is symbolic of the weak.

Also, there is obviously bullying going on here, from a “higher” class of society to a “lower” one. Being bullied for a person’s weight is something that happens today, but Fifteen Million Merits takes it to a whole new level in the future.

Aside from talking down to the cleaners, the people in grey outfits also shoot at the yellow figures who appear in video games. The yellow people who look like the floor cleaners are part of games that are similar to “Call of Duty”. They are shot at by the peddlers on the bike and the shooting games continue when the peddlers return to their homes too.

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Furthermore, if people are not working at same sole task, they are locked in their prison cell of video screens that cover every surface from floor to ceiling, pumping out an endless stream of inane comedy, reality TV and softcore porn. It is worth noting though that under these televisual circumstances, there is no place for intimacy. Being spectators of TV shows means that you appear in the show as an avatar who makes your reactions public .

We could assume that this “world” is the result of some sort of energy crisis. Hence, the population is needed to power their lights instead. Their existence is pretty miserable to contemplate; so much of the energy is used to distract the same citizenry as they perform their mundane tasks.

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The story has two main characters. Bing and Abi.

Bing is confronted with an artificial, media-saturated world, and yet he is hungry for something more.

Like most dystopian stories, he gets a hint that there could be something more when he meets the pretty Abi, and soon after he hears her singing, he falls for her.

Her innocence and naïvety are attractive to Bing, but her singing hints at something even deeper.  In his eyes, her beauty is something that goes beyond everything,  in a world covered with dark multimedia screens (black mirrors).

Even if they don´t have physical contact (there is an occasion when they briefly hold hands in an elevator, though), there is something magical between them, a spark of reality, so to speak.

There is symbol which seems to represent their bond. The little penguin, which recurrently appears.  It probably represents “something lost” (maybe Nature as it seems the characters are locked and pent-up in a “fake” world where real things are barely available).

This little animal appears many times throughout the episode as an origami penguin, carefully folded by Abi. Besides, Abi´s avatar wears a dress with penguins on it. And, at the end of the episode, the penguin motif takes on a quite heart-breaking significance at the episode’s conclusion, as Bing has a statue of a penguin in his luxurious but minimalist penthouse.
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Abi and Bing´s relationship is good. But, that’s just the beginning of the story. In a world where everything is a spectacle, where everything can be objectified, repackaged and sold back to an always hungry viewership, what happens with feelings and with human experiences?.

That´s when the we learn about “Hot Shot”, as an equivalent to “The X Factor” or “American Idol” in this episode, which seems to be the entrance to fame and a life free of duties (the bike).

“Hot Shot” depicts pretty much a “roman circus”.

abi2The committee on the TV-show “Hot Shot” consist of three judges named “Wraith”, “Hope”, and “Charity”. The theological virtues of Christianity are “Faith”, “Hope” and “Charity”. These were traditionally the path to follow in order to attain salvation. The change from “Faith” to “Wraith” is justified because our faith is now on the virtual world. The new salvation is to be successful, to obtain a more real virtuality.

Bing is so charmed by Abi´s song that he spends his dead brother’s 15 million merits to get her on “Hot Shot”, where she’s an instant sensation. Drugged by some sort of milk called “Cuppliance” (which is a composed word, resulting of the sum of “cup” and “compliance”), she goes along with Judge Wraith and becomes a porn star, in a wrenching twist.

Celebrity culture entails a sort of moral nihilism, the show in question leads to a dark voyeurism, which goes deep into other people’s humiliation, pain, weakness, and betrayal. Spectators appear as avatars, a crowded, anonymous audience facing the stage, staring at the contestants while they are just watching the screen in their cells (and represented as avatars in the audience).

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The crowd starts to chant for Abi to take the spot offered to her by the judge to become a porn star. In this case, when Abi is on stage, having drunk the “Cuppliance” beverage, she gives in to the social pressure of the crowd. While she is uncomfortable with the idea of becoming a porn star, as shown by her hesitation, the crowd’s chanting become gets stronger and louder.

Abi is being bullied. After all, the floor cleaners are not the only ones bullied in this society. She is being harassed digitally, which we can already see happening in real life today with death threats on Facebook and Twitter, for example. We soon learn the negative impacts of intimidation when we see the career that Abi ends up feeling forced to choose.

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In addition to the bullying, Abi is also submitting to something bigger than herself, which happens in many societies today. Whether you call it peer pressure (the crowd) or the pressure of authority (the judges), or a combination of the two, this Black Mirror episode takes the influence of others to the extreme. She wants approval, as so many people do in the world today.

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But Abi suffers terribly for getting this approval. She enters the porn world, as the judges and audience both encouraged her to do, and soon videos of her being demoralized by men are flashed across digital screens everywhere. While she no longer has to ride the bike all day, her new role is demeaning, including an image on the screens of a man putting his finger into her mouth and she is physically beneath him, which shows he has the power over her, body and all.

Abi is now officially part of the “Wraith Babes” stream that has “the hottest girls in the nastiest situations” as the announcer’s voice on the stream repeatedly says when it is shown on screens. So sad, as no girl says that she wants to grow up to star in pornography. Instead, Abi – like some women in today’s world – have been pressured into doing degrading sexual acts to please others. It is a depressing look at women’s bodies being exploited for the instant gratification of other people.

This example of Ali is taken to the extreme in a few ways. Firstly, she is viewed by Bing as being pure and innocent, including having an angelic voice; she is the ultimate example of peer pressure’s consequences. Also, the pornography featuring her is spread across huge digital screens for everyone to see, rather than being viewed on private websites or seedy theaters.

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Once Abi is caught in the porn universe, the ads featuring her torture a broken Bing. He destroys his room and sets upon a revenge mission, earning another shot on the show and giving a rough speech with a shard of glass pointed at his neck. The sequence in question is perfectly done.

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It is mostly an act of rebellion that leaves the audience numb and silent until  Judge Hope proclaims it the most heartfelt thing they’ve ever seen on the show. Soon after the Judge´s evaluation, the audience begin to cheer and clap hands in a standing ovation.

Bings´s speech is a little bit of the major irony here. He speaks out the truth (maybe because he cheats and avoid drinking the beverage Abi had when she performed, as he had hidden the dispenser under his bed).

Judge Hope says he is deeply moved by his words and offers him to have his own show twice a week for half an hour each. And Bing, persuaded by the judge and audience, accepts. 

So, ultimately he also sells himself out. In other words, he becomes entertainment himself. Speaking trite truths about consumerism and vociferating sold out prejudices concerning non-genuine life. While using the glass in his throat while he speaks, in a threatening tone as if he is going to commit suicide. 

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⇒Concluding Thoughts on Fifteen Million Merits:

As with the other Black Mirror episodes, Fifteen Million Merits is a smart hour of science fiction television. It shows a dark side of technology and the excesses that the world could come to in the future if electronic devices are not used wisely by humans. It could wind up that the world is short on energy, that we cannot get away from digital screens, and that bullying is a bigger side-effect of a tech-savvy lifestyle than ever before.

But, perhaps we have to squirm in our seats watching this kind of television to be able to make more sense of the world, our place in it, and how to use technology responsibly in the future.

Or, it could just be that we recognize that technology can also challenge our ways of thinking about the future, human nature, and electronic gadgets. What we know for sure is that we do not plan to buy or wear a grey sweat suit anytime soon.

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⇒Fifteen Million Merits and Plato´s Allegory of the Cave:

The interrelations between this episode and Plato´s Allegory of the Cave could be summarized as follows.

People´s approach of Reality is given basically through images of things. These things are screen images, and all sorts of images most times on the screens, of the cells or on TVs in front of the Bikes.

People are represented by avatars, meaning by images of themselves, the merits are charged to those avatars, as if it was a video game.

Most importantly, people are prisoners of a cave.

They live locked up there. Everyone has his own cells, in which each perimeter consists of screens.

The screens  continuously emit shows and do so unless it is the night. 

If the prisoner wants to watch a show, he´ll have to pay for it. And if he wants to skip ads, he´ll have to do the same.

The main shows are hosted and owned by the Judges of the show “Hot Shot” (Judge Charity, Judge Hope and Judge Wraith). So, basically, the Judges are somehow the puppeteers.

Bing is the “released prisoner”. After Abi´s performance and after she enters the Porn Industry (hired by Judge Wraith), he begins to see images as things, so to speak. The scene in the elevator, in which the main characters hold hands, is quite meaningful and one could even say it is a hinge moment.

Bing´s speech in “Hot Shot” shows that he is somehow the philosopher. The one who has a sharp intellect. 

Bing’s awakening makes evident the fact that the system is a huge lie and that the ideals proposed by power are alienating people instead of making them happier. Having seen the light, which is paradoxically darkness as it has to do with Abi´s prostitution, he wants to tell his former fellow prisoners about his experiences, as a sort of revolutionary leader would do. He tries to raise awareness.   

But, the irony here is that even if Judge Hope gives him the credit for his “moving” speech, whilst highlighting the importance of being “genuine”, he is not taken seriously, at least in the expected terms.

Judge Hope (who would be a sort of Crowd Pleaser) takes him to his own  field and beats him, once there.

Bing becomes an entertainer, and of the system he was defying. Light beyond the screens is unattainable as we can see in the last sequence of the episode, when he looks through a big window something that could be both thing: a real landscape or… even something more sinister: a landscape digitalized image on yet another screen.

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You can watch this episode of Black Mirror here and/or here. 

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Links Post:
https://goo.gl/bJ7PDQ
https://goo.gl/5bk0NS
https://goo.gl/9vq3JW
https://goo.gl/oO4nKy
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►Greek Mythology: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

 guarda_griega1_2Cortege Dionysus

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Dionysus is best known in Greek mythology as the god of wine, but he has also been associated with peace, agriculture, law, civilization, and most especially, the theatre. In Thrace he was known as Eleutherios, “the Liberator,” or Liber Pater, “the Free One,” because he freed people through drunken ectasy

The place of origin of the Hellenic Dionysian Mysteries is unknown, but they almost certainly first came to Greece with the importation of wine, which is widely believed to have originated, in the West, around 6000 BC in one of two places, either in the Zagros Mountains (the borderlands of Mesopotamia and Persia, both with their own rich wine culture since then) or from the ancient wild vines on the mountain slopes of Libya / North Africa (the source of early Egyptian wine from around 2500 BC, and home of many ecstatic rites), quite probably from both

Wine probably also entered Greece over land from Asia Minor. But it was most likely in Minoan Crete that the eclectic ‘wine cult’, that would become the Dionysian Mysteries, first emerged

The basic principle beneath the original initiations, other than the seasonal death-rebirth theme supposedly common to all vegetation cults (such as the Osirian, which closely parallels the Dionysian), was one of spirit possession and atavism. This in turn was closely associated with the effects of the wine. The spirit possession involved the invocation of spirits by means of the bull roarer, followed by communal dancing to drum and pipe, with characteristic movements (such as the backward head flick) found in all trance inducing cults.

Unlike many trance cults however, the Dionysian rites were primarily atavistic, that is the participant was possessed by animal spirits and bestial entities, rather than intelligible divinities, and may even “transform into animals”. A practise preserved by the riteof the “goat and panther men” of the “heretical” Aissaoua Sufi cult of North Africa, and remembered in the satyrs and sileni of the Dionysian procession, and perhaps even the “bull man”, or Minotaur, of the chthonic Minoan labyrinth.

The purpose of this atavism is controversial, some see it simply as a Greek saturnalian catharsis, a ritualised release of repressed elements of civilised psychology, and temporary inversion, in order to preserve it, others see it as a return to the “chaotic” sources of being and essentially a reaction against civilisation, while yet others regard it as a magical connection with chthonic powers

In the late 1800s A.D., the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche elaborated the dichotomy Apollonian- Dionysian in his book “The Birth of Tragedy”, arguing that the Apollonian principal corresponded to the principium individuationis, the principal of individualization, a concept coined by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. This is because rational thought defines and thus compartmentalizes forms into different structures.

Nietzsche rather identified with the Dionysian principal that corresponded to Schopenhauer’s conception of Will, the principal of submerging oneself into a greater whole. Music, drunkenness, dancing, and madness were considered Dionysian characteristics because they apply to the instinctive, chaotic, and ecstatic side of the human mind. 

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“The Initiation Chamber”. Villa of The Mysteries. Pompeii. (79 CE).-

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►”Dyonisiac Frieze, Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii” (In English):

►”Pompeii: Villa dei Misteri” (In Italian):

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•Further Information: “The Villa of the Mysteries” or “Villa dei Misteri” is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 400 metres northwest of Pompeii, southern Italy.

The Villa is named for the paintings in one room of the residence. This space is decorated with very fine frescoes, dated 79 B.C. Although the actual subject of the frescoes is hotly debated, the most common interpretation of the images is scenes of the initiation of a woman into a special cult of Dionysus, mystery cult  hat required specific rites and rituals to become a member.

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►Gallery: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
http://www.lost-history.com/mysteries.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_of_the_Mysteries
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dionysiac-frieze-villa-of-the-mysteries.html
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►Greek Mythology: “The Eleusinian Mysteries”:

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"Proserpine" (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

“Proserpine / Persephone” (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

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The Eleusinian Mysteries are related to a greek religious festival held each year at Eleusis, fourteen miles northwest of Athens. It  was celebrated in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter (whose name means “spelt mother” being “spelt” is a variety of wheat.)

The festivity took place each year, when it was time for the crops to be sown, in the month of Boedromion (September).

It all stems from the myth of Demeter and her daughter Persephone

Demeter was the Greek Goddess of the Harvest, while Persephone was the Goddess of  wheats.

The conflict was originated when Hades, God of the Underworld, abducted Persephone and took her down into the underworld. 

After that, Demeter searched the world looking for her daughter, and while doing this, she neglected her duties and let the earth go barren. 

As she couldn’ t find her, she finally decided to rest by a well in the city of Eleusis. 

There, disguised as an old woman, she cared for the queen’s son, baptizing him nightly in fire so that he would be immortal. 

Demeter later on  taught the queen’s son, who was called Triptolemos, the art of agriculture.

As a reward for having protected the prince Triptolemos, eleusian citizens began to build a temple in their city, as a tribute to Demeter.

Demeter’s attempts to find her daughter were in vain. Besides Demeter’s grief, and plants were dried, the crops died and the earth turn out into something sterile

The gods were worried and Zeus, who had witnessed the abduction, finally intervened. 

He did by persuading his brother, Hades to return Persephone to her mother. Hades agreed but before that he made sure to tricked Persephone into eating some pomegranate seeds and, if one ate in the land of the dead, one remained with the dead. 

As she had only eaten some, however, it was agreed she would spend half the year with Hades in the underworld and half with her mother on earth. 

That’s why while Demeter remained on earth with her mother Demeter, she caused the world to be fruitful while when she was in the underworld with Hades, the plants withered and died; thus the seasons were explained.

Another interesting detail is that when Persephone was abducted by Hades in the underworld, her name was changed to Kore. When she emerged from the underworld she recovered her original name,  Persephone (“she who brings doom”).-

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•The Ceremonies: The Mysteries began with the march of the mystai (initiates) in solemn procession from Athens to Eleusis. The rites that they then performed in the Telesterion, or Hall of Initiation, were and remain a secret. 

Those who were to be initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries had to go through preliminary rites of purification and instruction before they would be allowed to participate in the final revelations at Eleusis. 

 The mysteries were divided into the Lesser and Greater mysteries.  

The Lesser mysteries were preparatory to the Greater, involving purifications and perhaps some instruction or other rites, and they were celebrated near Athens,  in the month of Anthesterion (March).

The initial stages involved physical rites which were preparatory for the spiritual rites at Eleusis  After a series of further ritual actions, the initiate was ready for the myesis, the first level of initiation.

The Greater Mysteries began on 14th Boedromion (September/October), when the “sacred things,” carried in baskets, were brought from Eleusis to Athens by the Eleusinian priestesses escorted by epheboi (young Athenians of military age).  The following day, the hierophant opened the festival, making an announcement (prorrhesis) that those “who are not of pure hands or speak an incomprehensible tongue,” that is, those stained by human blood and non-Greek speaking barbarians, were not permitted to participate.  Other than these exclusions, anyone–including slaves, foreigners, men and women–could participate in the mysteries. A procession, named the Sacred Way , began at Athens on the morning of 19th of Boedromion and ended that evening in Eleusis.

Priestesses brought back the sacred things, with a procession of dancing and chanting initiates, perhaps almost in state of ecstasy

Only the initiates were allowed to proceed further into the cult area, which was dedicated to Hades.  The mysteries took place in the Telestrion, a large building which could hold a few thousand people.  The only ones permitted to enter were the mystai, those entering for the first time, and the epoptai, for whom it would be at least their second experience.

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•Literary Sources and Philosophical Notes:

The mythical basis for many of the mystery rites are accounted for in the “Hymn to Demeter”, which is part of the Homeric Hymns collection of poems

Those ones are thirty-three anonymous ancient greek Hymns celebrating individual gods. The hymns are “Homeric” in the sense that they employ the same epic meter as “the Iliad, use many similar formulas and are couched in the same dialect.

In Plato’s dialogue “The Symposium” he overtly establishes an analogy to the mysteries at Eleusis near the end of Diotima’s speech (as relayed by Socrates), when he has her say that “even you, Socrates, could probably come to be initiated [myētheiēs] into these rites of love [erōtika].  But as for the purpose of these rites when they are done correctly–that is the final and highest mystery” (209e-210a). 

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“Blessed is the mortal on earth who has seen these rites / But the uninitiated who has no share in them never / Has the same lot once dead in the dreary darkness”. (“Hymn To Demeter”. Lines 480/482).-

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 ►Gallery: “The Eleusinian Mysteries, held  in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter”:

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Triptolemos.-

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►Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleusinian_Mysteries
http://www.ancient.eu.com/article/32/
http://www.classics.upenn.edu/myth/php/hymns/index.php?page=eleusis
http://www.theoi.com/Georgikos/EleusiniosTriptolemos.html
http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/O28.2.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/ebm/ebm05.htm#page_31
http://www.lsu.edu/artsci/groups/voegelin/society/2005%20Papers/Steven%20McGuire.shtml

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►Mythology / Philosophy: 

“The Lost City of Atlantis”, according to Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”:

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Plato’s two dialogues pertaining to Atlantis are “Timaeus” and “Critias”, written in 360 BC. These are the earliest known written records about the Lost Continent of Atlantis, all other written references to Atlantis have been written since, and have been based on these writings by Plato.

“Timaeus” and “Critias” are actually written in the form of dialogues between four main characters: Socrates (Greek philosopher, and Plato’s teacher), Critias (poet & historian), Timaeus (an Italian astronomer.), and Hermocrates (a general from Syracuse). All were real people.

The dialogue “Timaeus” includes only a passing reference to Atlantis, but the second writing, the Critias, has a much more in depth description of Atlantis leading upto it’s downfall. 

The fabled island-continent derives its name from the Titan Atlas. It was said to be out beyond the western headland where the immortal giant holds up the heavens by means of a pillar on his back.

•The Atlantis, as described by Plato:

Plato told the story of Atlantis around 360 B.C.

According to Plato, Atlantis was the domain of Poseidon, god of the sea. When Poseidon fell in love with a mortal woman, Cleito, he created a dwelling at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her.

Cleito gave birth to five sets of twin boys who became the first rulers of Atlantis. The island was divided among the brothers with the eldest, Atlas, first King of Atlantis, being given control over the central hill and surrounding areas.

At the top of the central hill, a temple was built to honor Poseidon which housed a giant gold statue of Poseidon riding a chariot pulled by winged horses. It was here that the rulers of Atlantis would come to discuss laws, pass judgments, and pay tribute to Poseidon.

The founders of Atlantis, he said, were half god and half human. They created a utopian civilization and became a great naval power. Their home was made up of concentric islands separated by wide moats and linked by a canal that penetrated to the center. The lush islands contained gold, silver, and other precious metals and supported an abundance of rare, exotic wildlife. There was a great capital city on the central island.

For generations the Atlanteans lived simple, virtuous lives. But slowly they began to change. Greed and power began to corrupt them. When Zeus saw the immorality of the Atlanteans he gathered the other gods to determine a suitable punishment and destroy them.

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•Destruction of the Atlantis:

The most popular theories as to the destruction of Atlantis are exactly what Plato described, earthquakes and floods. The floods more than likely attributable to the tidal waves that would have been caused by the earthquakes. 

Another theory is that there was a volcano on the island that errupted with such force that the island was buried in molten lava. 

For Plato, Atlantis was an island, supposedly the size of Libya and Asia Minor combined, located in the Atlantic beyond Gibraltar and due to its central position a stepping stone by which travelers could reach other islands and the opposing land mass.

•Where was the city of Atlantis placed?:

There are many theories about where Atlantis was—in the Mediterranean: Thera,  Chales Pellegrino and Walter Friedrich, Cyprus (Robert Sarmast ), Central or South America (Ivar Zapp and George Erikson ) even under what is now Antarctica (Colin Wilson). [Note: You can check out ten possible locations here].

Many believe that Plato was basing his account of Atlantis on the history of the Minoan civilization, which would coincide well with these new dates. The history of the Minoan civilization and the description of Atlantis have a suspicious amount in common at any rate.

Ballard says, the legend of Atlantis is a “logical” one since cataclysmic floods and volcanic explosions have happened throughout history, including one event that had some similarities to the story of the destruction of Atlantis. About 3,600 years ago, a massive volcanic eruption devastated the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea near Greece. At the time, a highly advanced society of Minoans lived on Santorini. The Minoan civilization disappeared suddenly at about the same time as the volcanic eruption.

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►”The Atlantis: Hypothetical Locations” (Map Gallery):

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►The Atlantis in Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”.

(Read the relevant excerpts):

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►Check out “Timaeus” excerpts with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

►Check out “Critias”‘ excerpt with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

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►Bonustrack: Video: “Atlantis by artist Monsu Desiderio”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mythweb.com/encyc/entries/atlantis.html
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/archaeology/atlantis/
http://www.mcmillinmedia.com/atlantean-geography/
http://unxplained-factor.com/critias.htm
http://unxplained-factor.com/timaeus.htm
http://luccav.com/2015/01/30/the-search-for-atlantis/
http://luccav.com/2015/01/16/the-elusive-location-of-atlantis-part-1/
http://luccav.com/2015/01/23/the-elusive-location-of-atlantis-part-2/
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►Last but not Least: Two Awards: 

Kolytyi from “Trifles” nominated me  for a Liebster Award. Thank you very much, dear blogger friend😀

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate eleven (11)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Liebster Award.-

Liebster Award.-

 These are my eleven nominees for this award:

1) Kev´s Blog  2) En Humor arte 3) Autonomía en las formas 4Jet Eliot 5) London Senior 6) Unclee Tree 7Brushespapers 8) The Passion Dew 9) A solas con Caronte 10) Animasmundi11) Blog de Javier

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My  blogger friend, Caronte Moratalla from “A solas con Caronte” and my dear friend Verónica from “En Humor Arte” have both nominated me for the same award. Thanks a lot🙂

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Premio sin premio logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Premio Sin Premio

Premio Sin Premio.-

  These are my ten nominees for this award:

1) Chesterton Blog 2) Sweet as a picture 3) Isaspi 4) Word Musing 5) A little bird tweets 6) Angelart Star 7) Imaginecontinua 8) Cruz del Sur 9) Diwata in Lalaland 10) Si vis pacem para bellum.

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Thanks for dropping by, fellow bloggers. Happy Thursday and best wishes, Aquileana/Amalia😀

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♠Music: “As The City Rumbles Underneath”: 

“Featuring Cat Forsley & Ashton Price”

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♠About “As The City Rumbles Underneath”:

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♠As The City Rumbles Underneath: “Interview With Ashton Price”:

1) Can you introduce As The City Rumbles Underneath briefly?. 

AP: As the City Rumbles Underneath is a band or duo that is comprised of myself and Cat Forsley.  We’ve been together since the fall of 2012.

2) Why did you choose that name for the band?.

AP: We were really going over a bunch of different options, some of which involved just using our own names.  I personally didn’t like that as it made the project sound like a bad pub band.  I came up with “As the City Rumbles Underneath” when I was picking Cat up at the subway station one day.  As the subway rolled away the ground shook and the name came to me.

3) Which are your biggest musical influences?.

AP: For myself Depeche Mode is a big influence along with Leonard Cohen and Slowdive to name a few.  I can’t answer directly for Cat but I know she grew up listening to Madonna and loves Goldfrap.  One of the reasons we work so well is that I have a tendency to make things slower and darker and she always wants to make things more upbeat.  We both have a love of pop songwriting though so it’s a good mix.

4) Are you planning to record an LP adding all your singles and remix versions and when?.

AP:  I’ve thought a lot about that and one idea I had kicking around was taking our yearly output each year and making that the “album”.  I even thought of making a very limited short run of cds like that too.  I guess the end of the year is coming quickly so I might have to get on that quickly if we’re going to do it.

5) Which are the topics of your songs And/or videos?. 

AP: The songs are generally about love and freedom.  “When Stars Collide” also had some pretty heavy astronomy/physics overtones to it which was kind of fun.  One of the things I’m most proud of with this band is the way we’ve packaged some pretty intelligent lyrics (in my opinion) with some very catchy music and melodies.  I think some people could listen to the music and dismiss us as a pop act but if you really listen there is a message there.

6) When are you shooting your next video and which is the song´s name?.

AP: Next video is another Q&A video and then after that the next music video will be for our song “I Am You Are”.  We haven’t decided whether to do a video for either the remix, the original or both.  Right now I’m leaning towards doing it for the remix first but I guess we’ll see.

7) Any other project/suggestion you want to mention here?.

AP: Aside from our music project which I think is safe to say is our main musical priority I just released an EP on my own called “Lonely Nights” and Cat is planning on releasing an audio book of prose on November 1st.

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♠”As The City Rumbles Underneath: Beginning, Future Plans (Releasing of “Hearts Expire” Video )… and a Lake!”:

Introduction to the Video:“We thought it would be fun, one hot Toronto summer day to go out and make a video talking about how we got started as a band and what our plans are for the future”…

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Click on the image above to listen to the songs at Reverbnation.-

Click on the image above to listen to the songs at Reverbnation.-

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Click on the image above to listen to the playlist.. As The City Rumbles Underneath at Soundcloud.-

Click on the image above to listen to the playlist.. As The City Rumbles Underneath at Soundcloud.-

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All Videos By “As The City Rumbles Underneath”:

♠”Said and Done”:

♠”When Stars Collide”:

♠”Hearts Expire”:

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♠Screenshots  from “As The City Rumbles Underneath”´s Videos “When Stars Collide” & “Hearts Expire”:

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♠”As The City Rumbles Underneath”: “I am you are”

(Original Song And Remix):

Album artwork for "I Am You Are".-

Album artwork for “I Am You Are”.-

Click on the image above to listen to the remix by Chris Lago.-

Click on the image above to listen to the remix by Chris Lago.-

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♠Ashton Price: “Lonely Nights EP”:

Asthon Price. Click on his picture to contact Ashton.-

Ashton Price. Click on his picture to contact him at Facebook.-

Click above to listen to Ashton´s EP at Soundcloud.-

Click above to listen to Ashton´s EP at Soundcloud.-

“Lonely Nights” By Ashton Price

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♠Cat Forsley´s New Book: “100 Days Of Love”:

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►Cat Forsley´s Audio Book of Prose (self-published) will be out in the first days of November 2013 and available on these pages►

https://www.facebook.com/AsTheCityRumblesUnderneath

http://www.morphproductions.com

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♠Video Update: “As The City Rumbles Underneath”:

“October 2013”: “Fall Colours”:

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Click on Cat´s picture to contact her at Facebook.-

Click on Cat´s picture to contact her at Facebook.-

Click on Ashton´s picture to contact him at Morph Productions.-

Click on Ashton´s picture to contact him.-

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♠Find “As The City Rumbles Underneath” at Facebook &

Check out Morph Productions Website  and Cat Forsley´s Blog:

Click on the image above to connect with the members of the Band at Facebook.-

Click on the image above to connect with the members of the Band at Facebook.-

Click above to visit producer Ashton Price´s  website.-

Click above to visit producer Ashton Price´s website.-

Click above to visit Cart Forsley´s website.

Click above to visit Cat Forsley´s website.

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♠Last but not least: “Online Shopping”:

Cat Forsley´s Designs”:

Click on the Logo above to see and buy Cat Forsley ´s products.-

Click on the Logo above to see and buy Cat Forsley ´s products / Hacer Click en el Logo de arriba para ver el catálogo de diseños en venta.-

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♠Links Post:

►AS THE CITY RUMBLES UNDERNEATH►

https://www.facebook.com/AsTheCityRumblesUnderneath
http://www.youtube.com/user/AstheCityRumblesUnde
https://soundcloud.com/as-the-city-rumbles
http://www.reverbnation.com/asthecityrumblesunderneath
►CAT FORSLEY►
http://about.me/catforsley
http://catforsley.me/
https://twitter.com/CatForsley
http://www.cafepress.com/catforsleydesigns/10496247
►ASHTON PRICE►
http://www.morphproductions.com/
http://twitter.com/morphpro
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Toronto-ON/Morph-Productions/8144912092

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♠Shout- Out: “This Post has been reblogged at Partager la Magie“:

Click above to see this post reblogged at "Partager la Magie". Merci Beaucoup Delvina Lavoie.-

Click above to see this post reblogged at “Partager la Magie”. Merci Delvina Lavoie.-

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Read Full Post »

♠Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari:

“Capitalismo y Esquizofrenia”: “Mil Mesetas” / 

“Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”:

Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari: "Mille Plateaux" (Edición original en francés: 1980) .-

Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari: “Capitalisme et Schizophrénie: Mille Plateaux”. Edición original en francés, 1980.-

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♠Breve Reseña Comparada: Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari:

“Capitalismo y Esquizofrenia:  “El Antiedipo” y “Mil Messetas”:

“Mil Mesetas” (1980) constituye la segunda parte de “Capitalismo y Esquizofrenia”, obra escrita conjuntamente por Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari. La primera parte de esta obra es “El Antiedipo” (1972).

En “El Antiedipo”, los autores pretendían “denunciar los daños causados por Edipo en el psicoanálisis, en la psiquiatría e incluso en la anti-psiquiatría, en la crítica literaria, y en la imagen general que se hace del pensamiento”.

Tres eran los temas de este singular libro: 1) el funcionamiento del inconsciente: funcionaría como una fábrica, no como un teatro. Por lo tanto el problema en cuestión es el de la producción y no el de la representación.  2) el carácter del delirio; sería histórico-mundial en vez de familiar. Esto quiere decir que las razas, la cultura, las tribus, los continentes, etc., son delirados.  3)  la existencia y carácter de la historia mundial: la historia mundial es una historia de la contingencia.

La teoría de la expresión y la disposición es la primera filosofía de Deleuze y Guattari.

La crítica del psicoanálisis en “El Antiedipo” identifica ese plano de fuerza.

La fuerza de la expresión es ontológica, creativa y estructurada. Esto significa que el punto de vista de la singularidad es conjugado inmediatamente con una definición de espacio en extensión, en la imagen Bergsoniana del movimiento estructurante e inaugural. La singularidad, ya sea individual o colectiva, y la determinación de la relación del actor con el evento son puestos en acción. La haecceidad (haecceity), definida por el Deleuze inicial como el término problemático fundamental de la filosofía, es originariamente activo y se despliega según las dimensiones del movimiento, mediante in rayo de luz de deseos o elementos maquínicos. La fuerza inicial es subjetiva y constructiva, es disposición. Este término significa; expresión más organización, o, expresión organizada, fuerza organizada, extensión y movimiento.

El evento es la producción de cuerpos, la producción histórica del juego (ensemble) de cuerpos y sus relaciones. La producción de cuerpos es la reducción de la historicidad; la historicidad es la producción de cuerpos.

El cuerpo sin órganos es el campo de la absolución del deseo, el plano de consistencia adecuado a la historicidad. La matriz del mundo es cero mientras no se aferra el proceso de constitución de subjetividad, y no se sigue la infinita tensión de la constitución.

Al plantearse la necesidad de crear conceptos, “Mil Mesetas” se propone una tarea “constructivista”; en este sentido, este libro reivindica una pretensión post-kantiana. Se trata de una teoría de las multiplicidades, donde lo múltiple adquiere estatus de sustantivo.

En “El Antiedipo”, lo múltiple era tratado todavía como síntesis, bajo las condiciones del inconsciente. Pero en realidad, las multiplicidades desbordan la distinción entre la consciencia y la inconsciencia, de la naturaleza y de la historia, del cuerpo y el alma.

Cada meseta traza un mapa de circunstancias, por eso tiene una fecha y una imagen. Un mapa o un diagrama es un conjunto de líneas diversas que funcionan al mismo tiempo. En la medida que las cosas estén constituidas por líneas, en esa medida cada una tiene su mapa, su cartografía.  En este proceso, se pueden definir todos los tipos de líneas, pero no decidir cuál es buena y cuál es mala. “En una cartografía sólo se puede marcar caminos y movimientos, son coeficientes de suerte y de peligro”. Entonces, la Historia de la contingencia se hace más variada: no la sucesión histórica tradicional sino diferentes tipos de formaciones coexistentes.

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Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930/1992)

Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930/1992)

Joven Gilles Deleuze (1925/1995).-

Joven Gilles Deleuze (1925/1995).-

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♠”Sobre Mil Mesetas de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari”:

(Extractos del Dossier escrito por Antonio Negri)

Tras haber establecido la instancia de la producción en la fuerza del deseo y sus procesos maquínicos, Deleuze-Guattari se desplazaron hacia el análisis de la extensión (etendue), de su expansión en acción y movimiento. Lo que caracteriza al espacio es el rizoma. El rizoma es una fuerza, un filum que se abre a un horizonte de desarbolante arborescencia – y, en este proceso, la singularidad se singulariza a sí misma cada vez más. Al mismo tiempo, en la riqueza de esta producción de singularidades, el contexto de la vida se presenta en un juego de interrelaciones-unidad y multiplicidad, conexiones y heterogeneidad, ruptura y líneas de fuga son siempre invertidas según una cartografía renovada incesantemente, formando siempre nuevos sistemas, no auto-centrados sino en expansión. Es a partir de allí que las ciencias del espíritu pueden reorganizarse a sí mismas, o sea, cuando las tensiones rizomáticas y las disposiciones maquínicas aparecen como arreglos subjetivos de enunciación – las dinámicas constitutivas se desplazan desde la física del rizoma al régimen de los signos que caracteriza a la ciencia. La superficie del mundo es organizada según regímenes de signos, sin dispersar la consistencia maquínica sino, al contrario, renovándola en su enunciación.

La perspectiva de la historicidad es no sólo constitutiva sino también conflictiva: como en Spinoza, es la guerra que genera vida. Las redes constituyen ambiguas aberturas y disposiciones: se abren, cierran y abren nuevamente, mientras determinan conflictos. Cada punto de la arborescencia maquínica o enunciativa es reabierto secuencialmente en otras arborescencias, otras redes, tanto por arriba como por debajo, de acuerdo con modalidades conflictivas

La llegada es el innovador resultado en el magma de la expresión, es, en algún sentido, la solución de la guerra, y por eso, la reapertura de escenas conflictivas. Lo rizomático se refiere a un mundo Hobbesiano- en el cual, sin embargo, no hay individuos propietarios sino (en sentido Spinozista) singularidades deseantes productivas, individuales o colectivas, que son las protagonistas.

Es la elección en la guerra la que determina el significado de la historicidad. Políticamente, la máquina de guerra se define a sí misma como positividad, porque se posiciona contra el Estado. Frente al Estado, y frente en particular al Estado del capitalismo maduro, el orden molecular organizado, se torna necesariamente en un contra-poder: sociedad contra el Estado.

El pragmatismo de las micro-políticas es el único punto de vista operativo de la historicidad. Esta alternancia de puntos de vista y esta convergencia de determinaciones constructivas no descansan nunca. El objetivo del orden molar es absorber la fuerza del deseo y rehacer los aparatos con el único fin de bloquear el flujo pragmático de lo molecular: lo molar es, por definición, el obstáculo ontológico de lo molecular. Por otro lado, el flujo molecular es elusivo, busca perpetuamente molestar a los aparatos de bloqueo y abrir el camino a la historicidad. ¿Pero qué es la revolución? Es hacer un evento por fuera de este proceso infinito. La línea política de “Mil Mesetas” es la que lleva a los aparatos moleculares de los deseos a resistir al orden molar, a evitarlo, a circunnavegarlo, a huirle. Una línea de fuga, organizada por la creatividad del deseo, por el infinito movimiento molecular de los sujetos, por un pragmatismo reinventado a cada instante. La revolución es el evento ontológico de rechazo y la actualización de su infinita potencialidad

“Mil Mesetas” supone una  superficie ontológica  plena de hendiduras, rupturas, complicaciones y reconstrucciones: un territorio permanentemente limitado y plegado. Sólo una dirección, sólo una teleología: la creciente abstracción de las relaciones, que es propia de la complejidad de las arborescencias, el desarrollo de rizomas y la expansión de los conflictos. Una abstracción que es ella misma un territorio, un nuevo territorio, nuevamente cubierto de pliegues, sombras variadas y posibles alternativas. El poder del deseo se construye en la superficie de un territorio, y la transformación se repite indefinidamente. Este nuevo territorio es siempre productivo, infinitamente productivo. Es por esta razón que el mundo es un territorio que debe ser siempre territorializado, ocupado, reconstruido, habitado; una tensión que sólo puede satisfacer la intensidad de una acción creativa múltiple. En esta visión, la relación entre máquina y enunciación, entre ciencia y ontología, es global. La ciencia es constitutiva en tanto, para construirse, se proyecte siendo vivida. La ciencia construye planos de consistencia ontológica cada vez que el juego de funciones de enunciación se vuelve el objeto del pragmatismo, o se realice nuevamente en el evento; en una determinación. También la subjetividad se presenta en la superficie, como pliegue de la superficie. Pero conocemos qué presupone la luminosidad de ese fuerte evento, la producción de subjetividad: la disposición maquínica atravesando el conflicto, la enunciación del proyecto, la expresión del deseo, la realización del infinito en el evento.-

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Hacer click sobre la imagen del título para leer el Dossier completo de Antonio Negri.-

Hacer click sobre la imagen del título para leer el Dossier completo de Antonio Negri.-

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♠Descargar: “Capitalismo y Esquizofrenia”: “Mil Mesetas”, de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari:

Hacer click sobre la imagen del libro para descargar "Mil Mesetas".-

Hacer click sobre la imagen del libro para descargar “Mil Mesetas”.-

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♠Pingback: “Sobre el Concepto de Rizoma de Deleuze y Guattari”:

Hacer click sobre la imagen de arriba para leer al artículo.-

Hacer click sobre la imagen de arriba para leer al artículo.-

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♠ENGLISH SECTION:

♠Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari: “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”:

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♠”Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”: Brief Review:

Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris. He is a key figure in poststructuralism, and one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century. Felix Guattari (1930-1992) was a psychoanalyst at the la Borde Clinic, as well as being a major social theorist and radical activist. 

“A Thousand Plateaus” is part of Deleuze and Guattari’s landmark philosophical project, Capitalism and Schizophrenia – a project that still sets the terms of contemporary philosophical debate. “A Thousand Plateaus” provides a compelling analysis of social phenomena and offers fresh alternatives for thinking about philosophy and culture. Its radical perspective provides a toolbox for nomadic thought and has had a galvanizing influence on today’s anti-capitalist movement.

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Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.-

Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.-

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►”What is a Rhizome?”: Deleuze and Guattari´s Rhizome Explained”►

Description: In this video Joseph Vogl, Professor of Contemporary Literature at the Humboldt University Berlin, explains Deleuze and Guattari´s concept of the “Rhizome”.-

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♠ Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari: “A Thousand Plateaus”:

“Principal Characteristics of a Rhizome, according to the authors”: 

Let us summarize the principal characteristics of a rhizome: unlike trees or their roots, the rhizome connects any point to any other point, and its traits are not necessarily linked to traits of the same nature; it brings into play very different regimes of signs, and even nonsign states. The rhizome is reducible to neither the One or the multiple. It is not the One that becomes Two or even directly three, four, five etc. It is not a multiple derived from the one, or to which one is added (n+1). It is comprised not of units but of dimensions, or rather directions in motion. It has neither beginning nor end, but always a middle (milieu) from which it grows and which it overspills. It constitutes linear multiplicities with n dimensions having neither subject nor object, which can be laid out on a plane of coinsistency, and from which the one is always subtracted (n-1). When a multiplicity of this kind changes dimension, it necessairly changes in nature as well, undergoes a metamorphisis. Unlike a structure, which is defined by a set of points and positions, the rhizome is made only of lines; lines of segmentarity and stratification as its dimensions, and the line of flight or deterritorialization as the maximum dimension after which the multiplicity undergoes metamorphosis, changes in nature. These lines, or ligaments, should noty be confused with lineages of the aborescent type, which are merely localizable linkages between points and positions…Unlike the graphic arts, drawing or photography, unlike tracings, the rhizome pertains to a map that must be produced, constructed, a map that is always detatchable, connectable, reversable, modifiable,, and has multiple entranceways and exits and its own lines of flight.

(Deleuze; Gilles and Guattari Félix, “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”, 1987, p. 21).-

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Rhizome´s structure.-

Rhizome Structure (1).-

Rhizome´s structure (2).-

Rhizome Structure (2).-

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♠”Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”: Quotes:

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"K". More quotes. Click on the Logo to read them.-

More quotes on “A Thousand Plateaus”. Click on the Logo to read them.-

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♠Download: “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”: “A Thousand Plateaus”, by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari:

Click on the book cover above to download "A Thousand Plateaus", by Deleuze and Guattari.-

Click on the book cover above to download “A Thousand Plateaus”, by Deleuze and Guattari.-

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♠Links Post:
http://deleuzefilosofia.blogspot.be/2010_11_01_archive.html
http://v2.reflexionesmarginales.com/index.php/num4-dossier-blog/423-sobre-mil-mesetas-de-gilles-deleuze-y-felix-guattari
https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2011/12/02/gilles-deleuze-agenciamiento-colectivo-y-rizomas/
http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/118316.Thousand_Plateaus
http://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/57114-a-thousand-plateaus-capitalism-and-schizophrenia-ii
http://www.pinterest.com/search/?q=Deleuze
http://critical-theory.com/rhizome/
http://aleshiaclarke.wordpress.com/2013/08/16/web-of-life/
http://ensemble.va.com.au/enslogic/text/smn_lct08.htm

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♠Bonustrack:  Algunas historias breves y artículos de Alice Munro, Premio Nobel de Literatura 2013:

(Hacer click en los títulos para acceder a los Textos)

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Alice Munro is last to know she won the Nobel Prize in Literature.-

“Alice Munro is last to know she won the Nobel Prize in Literature”.-

Canadian author Alice Munro has solidified her place as the master of the short story by being awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Literature.-

Canadian author Alice Munro has solidified her place as the master of the short story by being awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Literature.-

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Last But not Least: “This Post has been reblogged at Partager la Magic hosted by Delvina Lavoie“:

Click above to check the post at "Partager la Magic".-

Click above to check the post at “Partager la Magic”.-

Click on the image to visit the blog.-

Click on the image to visit the blog.-

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