♠Plato: “The Republic”: “On the Concept of Justice”:
In “The “Republic” (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia. Books I, II and IV), Plato treats justice as an overarching virtue of individuals (and of societies), meaning that almost every issue he would regard as ethical comes in under the notion of justice (dikaosoune).
After criticizing the conventional theories of justice presented differently by Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus and Glaucon, Plato gives us his own theory of justice according to which, individually, justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a person self-consistent and good; socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.
→”Justice is doing one´s own job”. (Book IV, 443 b).
Justice is thus a sort of specialization. It is simply the will to fulfill the duties of one’s station and not to meddle with the duties of another station, and its habitation is, therefore, in the mind of every citizen who does his duties in his appointed place. It is the original principle, laid down at the foundation of the State, “that one man should practice one thing only and that the thing to which his nature was best adopted”. True justice to Plato, therefore, consists in the principle of non-interference. The State has been considered by Plato as a perfect whole in which each individual which is its element, functions not for itself but for the health of the whole. Every element fulfils its appropriate function. Justice in the platonic state would, therefore, be like that harmony of relationship where the Planets are held together in the orderly movement. Plato was convinced that a society which is so organized is fit for survival.
→”Justice is Harmony”. (Book Iv, 434 b).
For Plato, justice is a virtue establishing rational order, with each part performing its appropriate role and not interfering with the proper functioning of other parts.
Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society. It is the identical quality that makes good and social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul as health is to the body. Plato says that justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social.
Both Plato and Aristotle were rationalists as regards both human knowledge and moral reasons, and what they say about the virtue of justice clearly reflects the commitment to rationalism. Much subsequent thinking about justice (especially in the Middle Ages) was influenced by Plato and Aristotle and likewise emphasized the role of reason both in perceiving what is just and in allowing us to act justly.
►Plato: The Republic”:
►Poll: Vote Here: “Which Definition of Justice do you think is more accurate?”:
►Bonustrack: Greek Mythology: “Dike, the Goddess of Justice”:
The Greek goddess Dike was the personification of justice. In Hesiod´s “Theogony” (lines 901/904), Dike – or Justice – is identified as the daughter of Zeus and Themis:
“His second wife was radiant Themis; she bore the Seasons, Lawfulness and Justice and blooming Peace, who watch over the works of mortal men, and also the Fates, to whom wise Zeus allotted high honors.”
And although the goddess of justice was in many respects more important in literature than religion, she still played a significant role in the lives of the ancient Greeks. It is suggested in some sources that Dike was instrumental in punishing wrong doers and rewarding those who did good deeds.