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►Icarus´Fall: “The Myth. Symbolism and Interpretation”:

"Icarus and Daedalus", by Charles Paul Landon

“Icarus and Daedalus”, by Charles Paul Landon.-

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Icarus´Fall: “The Myth”: 

Icarus’s father Daedalus, an athenian  craftsman, built the Labyrinth for King Minos  of Crete near his palace at Knossos  to imprison the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster born of his wife and the Cretan bull. Minos imprisoned Daedalus himself in the labyrinth because he gave Minos’ daughter, Ariadne, a or ball of string in order to help  Theseus , the enemy of Minos, to survive the Labyrinth and defeat the Minotaur.

Daedalus fashioned two pairs of wings out of wax and feathers for himself and his son. Daedalus tried his wings first, but before taking off from the island, warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, nor too close to the sea, but to follow his path of flight.

If he were to do so, Daedalus explained, the wax that held his wings together would melt, rendering them useless, and Icarus would fall from the sky to his death.

Icarus, however, was overcome by the incredible feeling of flight. He was so taken by the experience, that he flew higher and higher. He flew so high that he got perilously close to the sun. Just as his father warned him would happen, the wax on his wings melted into a useless liquid. The wings fell to pieces and Icarus fell from the sky. The water into which Icarus is said to have fallen is near Icaria, a Grecian Island in the Aegean Sea. The island is named for the legendary flying man. Icaria is southwest of the island of Samos.

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SlideShare: “Daedalus and Icarus”:

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

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Icarus´Fall: “Symbolism and Interpretation”:

Symbols are insightful expressions of human nature.They are the external, lower expressions of higher truths and represent deep intuitive wisdom impossible by direct terms.

Joseph Campbell defined symbols as “giving expression to what is absolutely “unknowable” by  intellect”.

In the psychiatric mind features of disease were perceived in the shape of the pendulous emotional ecstatic-high and depressive-low of bipolar disorder. 

Henry Murray  having proposed the term Icarus complex, apparently found symptoms particularly in mania where a person is fond of heights, fascinated by both fire and water, narcissistic and observed with fantastical cognitio.

The myth of Icarus´moral is to “take the middle way” by warning against heedless pursuit of instant gratification.

In this sense it highlights the greek idea of  Sophrosyne (Greek: σωφροσύνη), which etymologically means healthy-mindedness and from there self-control or moderation guided by knowledge and balance. 

As Aristotle held, as shown in the post , “Aristotle´s Ethical Theory: On The Concept of Virtue and Golden Mean”, virtue is  a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount.

The flight of Icarus could be interpreted as a lesson in the value of moderation. The danger in flying “too high” (i.e. melting of the wax wings) or in flying “too low” (i.e. weighting down the wings by sea-water spray) were advocations for one to respect one’s limits and to act accordingly.

The moral of this myth could be also linked to Plato´s analogy of the divided line, in which the Sun symbolizes the highest Form (Idea of God). Therefore according to this perspective, Icarus has flown too high . He tried to become wiser than Gods whilst achieving Knowledge and, as he defied the godess,  he was punished for that reason.

A similar interpretation is found in Plato´s myth of Phaethon, as it appears in his elderly dialogue “Timaeus”.

Moreover and going further, considering Plato´s allegory of the cave, Icarus could be linked to the  escaped prisoner, who represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the cave (labyrinth).

Icarus´s myth may also be related to Plato´s analogy of the chariot. When flying high with his waxed wings, Icarus´ chariot  was driven by the obstinated black horse, which represents man’s appetites. The fact of disobeying Daedalus´advice proves that his rational part of the soul which should rule over appetites wasn´t strong  and determined enough to do so. In other words, the black horse beats the rational charioteer .

Icarus’ age is an aspect of the myth that deserves a mention here, for it is a characteristic of the period of adolescence to impulsively follow the appetite for life, to rush into the unknown adventure, to chase dreams, to follow temptation and not to heed warnings of danger.-

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"The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus" by Merry-Joseph Blondel

“The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus” by Merry-Joseph Blondel

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"The Lament for Icarus" by H. J. Draper.-

“The Lament for Icarus” by H. J. Draper.-

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Icarus´Fall: Paintings:

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 Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icarus
http://www.shmoop.com/daedalus-icarus/myth-text.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophrosyne
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaethon
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2007/08/05/icaro/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/01/25/aristotles-ethical-theory-on-the-concepts-of-virtue-and-golden-mean/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/platos-phaedrus-the-allegory-of-the-chariot-and-the-tripartite-nature-of-the-soul/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/03/platos-republic-the-allegory-of-the-cave-and-the-analogy-of-the-divided-line/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/01/21/andre-comte-sponville-el-mito-de-icaro-tratado-de-la-deseperanza-y-de-la-felicidad/

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►”Happy Easter 2014″:

Best Wishes, Aquileana :P

Happy-Easter

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

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In the dialogue “Phaedrus”, Plato presents the allegory of the chariot to explain the tripartite nature of the human soul or psyche. 

The chariot is pulled by two winged horses, one mortal and the other immortal.

The mortal, black horse is deformed and obstinate. Plato describes the horse as a “crooked lumbering animal, put together anyhow… of a dark color, with grey eyes and blood-red complexion; the mate of insolence and pride, shag-eared and deaf, hardly yielding to whip and spur.”

The inmortal, white horse, on the other hand, is noble and game, “upright and cleanly made… his color is white, and his eyes dark; he is a lover of honor and modesty and temperance, and the follower of true glory; he needs no touch of the whip, but is guided by word and admonition only.”

→In the driver’s seat is the charioteer, tasked with reining in these disparate steeds, guiding and harnessing them to propel the vehicle with strength and efficiency. The charioteer’s destination is the ridge of heaven, beyond which he may behold the Forms, Truth and absolute Knowledge. These essences nourish the horses’ wings, keeping the chariot in flight.

The charioteer joins a procession of gods, led by Zeus, on this trip into the heavens.

The ride is turbulent. The white horse wishes to rise, but the dark horse attempts to pull the chariot back towards the earth. As the horses pull in opposing directions, and the charioteer attempts to get them into sync, his chariot bobs above the ridge of heaven .

If the charioteer is able to behold the Forms, he gets to go on another revolution around the heavens. But if he cannot successfully pilot the chariot, the horses’ wings wither from lack of nourishment, or break off when the horses collide and attack each other, or crash into the chariots of others.

 When the chariot plummets to earth, the horses lose their wings, and the soul becomes embodied in human flesh. The degree to which the soul falls, and the “rank” of the mortal being it must then be embodied in is based on the amount of Truth it beheld while in the heavens.

The degree of the fall also determines how long it takes for the horses to regrow their wings and once again take flight. Basically, the more Truth the charioteer beheld on his journey, the shallower his fall, and the easier it is for him to get up and get going again.

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The Tripartite Nature of the Soul and the Allegory of the Chariot

 Plato conceives of the soul as having (at least) three parts:

  1. A rational part (the part that loves truth and knowledge, which should rule over the other parts of the soul through the use of reason)→ The Charioteer represents man’s Reason
  2. A spirited part (which seeks glory, honor, recognition and victory) →The white horse represents man’s spirit (thymos:θύμος).
  3. An appetitive part (which desires food, drink, material wealth and sex) →The black horse represents man’s appetites.

Worth noting: In the dialogue “The Republic”, Plato states that justice will be that condition of the soul in which each of these three parts “does its own work,” and does not interfere in the workings of the other parts (Check out this post: “Plato’s “The Republic”: “On the Concept of  Justice”).

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”:

Click on the image above to read the dialogue "Phaedrus" by Plato.-

Click on the image above to read the dialogue “Phaedrus” by Plato.-

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Slideshare: Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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Links Post:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ancient-soul/#3.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chariot_Allegory
http://outre-monde.com/2010/09/27/platos-metaphors-the-chariot-allegory/
http://www.english.hawaii.edu/criticalink/plato/guide6.html
http://www.john-uebersax.com/plato/plato3.htm
http://www.scandalon.co.uk/philosophy/plato_tripartite_soul.htm

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♠ Plato´s “Republic”: “The Allegory of the Cave and the Analogy of the Divided Line”:

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

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Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is written as a dialogue between Plato’s teacher Socrates and Plato’s brother Glaucon at the beginning of “The Republic” Book VII (514a–520a). This allegory is presented after the analogy of the sun (507b–509c) and the analogy of the divided line (509d–513e). 

In the allegory, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire.  Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The puppeteers are just people outside the cave walk along this walkway, who presumably carry things on their heads including; animals, plants, wood and stone.

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Here is an illustration based on the whole description of the Cave:

Plato´s Allegory of the Cave.-

Plato´s Allegory of the Cave.-

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►Description: “The Allegory of the Cave”:

►The prisoners, the cave and the shadows:

The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects, that pass behind them. 

What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see.  Here is an illustration of Plato’s Cave.

Such prisoners wou ld mistake appearance for reality. As they had never seen the real objects ever before, they believe that the shadows of objects are real objects.

► The Game:

Plato suggests that the prisoners would begin a ‘game’ of guessing which shadow would appear next. If one of the prisoners were to correctly guess, the others would praise him as the most clever.

 ►Departure:

One of the prisoners then escapes from their bindings and leaves the cave. He is shocked at the world he notices outside the cave and does not believe it can be real. As he becomes used to his new surroundings, he realizes that his former view of reality was wrong. He begins to understand this world. He is first able to see only shadows of things. Next he can see the reflections of things in water and later is able to see things themselves. He is then able to look at the stars and moon by night and finally he is able to look upon the sun. Finally, he is able to behold the sun, which is the main source of knowledge.

►Return to the Cave: 

The prisoner returns to the cave, to inform the other prisoners of his findings. They do not believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to set them free.

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►Video: “The Allegory of the Cave”:

The Allegory of the Cave (Animated). Click on the image above to watch the video at YouTube.-

Video: The Allegory of the Cave (Animated). Click on the image above to watch it at YouTube.-

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►The Allegory of the Cave: Symbolism and General Meaning:

The escaped prisoner represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the cave and outside of the senses.

The Sun represents philosophical truth and knowledge. 

The prisoner´s intellectual journey represents a philosopher´s journey when finding truth and wisdom.

In this sense, the Allegory of the Cave is an attempt to explain the philosopher’s place in society

The other prisoners reaction to the escapee returning represents that people are scared of knowing philosophical truths and do not trust philosophers.

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The analogy of the sun (Excerpt of Plato´s "Republic").-

The analogy of the Sun (Excerpt of Plato´s “Republic”).-

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► “The Allegory of the Cave and the Analogy of the divided line”:

 

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A & B: THE PHYSICAL WORLD: “APPEARANCE”

Thus A represents shadows and reflections of physical things, and B the physical things themselves. These correspond to two kinds of knowledge, the illusion (εἰκασία eikasia) of our ordinary, everyday experience, and belief (πίστις pistis) about discrete physical objects which cast their shadows.

→Method to achieve knowledge: In A, the eye makes guesses upon observing likenesses of visible things.

→Method to achieve knowledge: In B, the eye makes probable predictions upon observing visible things

 A & B: The Visible World in The Allegory of the Cave

A: BOUND REAR OF CAVE. SHADOWS PROJECTIONS. (SHADOWS, REFLECTIONS, ETC).

B: UNBOUND: FIGURES PROJECTING SHADOWS. (OBJECTS/THINGS).

C & D: THE “INTELLIGIBLE WORLD” (FORMS/IDEAI): “REALITY”

C involves  mathematical reasoning (διάνοια dianoia). There  abstract mathematical objects such as geometric lines are discussed. Such objects are outside the physical world (and are not to be confused with the drawings of those lines, which fall within the physical world B).

→Method to achieve knowledge: In C, the Psyche assumes hypotheses while making use of likenesses, always moving towards final conclusions.

D includes the subjects of philosophical understanding (νόησις noesis).

→In D, knowledge is achieved by the method of dialectic, “using the hypotheses not as first principles, but only as hypotheses — that is to say, as steps and points of departure into a world which is above hypotheses, in order that she may soar beyond them to the first principle of the whole” (511b)

C & D: The Intelligible World in The Allegory of the Cave:

C: OUTSIDE AND DAZZLED BY THE SUNSHINE, THE PRISONER SEES ONLY SHADOWS (LOWER FORMS)

D: ADJUSTED TO BRIGHT SUNLIGHT, THE PRISONER PERCEIVES VISIBLE OBJECTS AND APPREHENDS THE SUN (HIGHER FORMS).

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►The Allegory of the Cave, The Analogies of the Divided line and the Sun & the Theory of Forms:

The Allegory of the Cave, The analogy of the divided line and the analogy of the Sun are related to Plato’s Theory of Formsaccording to which the “Forms” (or “Ideas“), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.

Only knowledge of the Forms constitutes real knowledge. 

For Plato’s Forms are not mental entities, nor even mind-dependent. They are independently existing entities whose existence and nature are graspable only by the mind, even though they do not depend on being so grasped in order to exist.

The dialogue Phaedo” contains an extended description of the characteristics and functions of the forms: 

•Unchangeable (78c10-d9).

•Eternal (79d2)

•Intelligible, not perceptible (79a1-5)

•Divine (80a3, b1)

•Incorporeal (passim)

•Causes of being (“The one over the many”) (100c)

Are unqualifiedly what their instances are only with qualification (75b)

Other dialogues fill out the picture: •non-temporal (“Timaeus” 37e-38a); •non-spatial (“Phaedrus” 247c); •they do not become, they simply are (“Timaeus” 27d3-28a3).

 

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Plato (427/347 BCE).-

Plato (427/347 BCE).-

 

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►Links Post:

http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/thforms.htm

http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/cave.htm

http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2007/07/29/32/

 
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♠Plato: “The Republic”: “On the Concept of Justice”:

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In “The “Republic” (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia. Books I, II and IV), Plato treats justice as an overarching virtue of individuals (and of societies), meaning that almost every issue he would regard as ethical comes in under the notion of justice (dikaosoune).

After criticizing the conventional theories of justice presented differently by Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus and Glaucon, Plato gives us his own theory of justice according to which, individually, justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a person self-consistent and good; socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.

→”Justice is doing one´s own job”. (Book IV, 443 b).

Justice is thus a sort of specialization. It is simply the will to fulfill the duties of one’s station and not to meddle with the duties of another station, and its habitation is, therefore, in the mind of every citizen who does his duties in his appointed place. It is the original principle, laid down at the foundation of the State, “that one man should practice one thing only and that the thing to which his nature was best adopted”. True justice to Plato, therefore, consists in the principle of non-interference. The State has been considered by Plato as a perfect whole in which each individual which is its element, functions not for itself but for the health of the whole. Every element fulfils its appropriate function. Justice in the platonic state would, therefore, be like that harmony of relationship where the Planets are held together in the orderly movement. Plato was convinced that a society which is so organized is fit for survival.

→”Justice is Harmony”. (Book Iv, 434 b).

For Plato, justice is a virtue establishing rational order, with each part performing its appropriate role and not interfering with the proper functioning of other parts. 

Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society. It is the identical quality that makes good and social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul as health is to the body. Plato says that justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social.

Both Plato and Aristotle were rationalists as regards both human knowledge and moral reasons, and what they say about the virtue of justice clearly reflects the commitment to rationalism. Much subsequent thinking about justice (especially in the Middle Ages) was influenced by Plato and Aristotle and likewise emphasized the role of reason both in perceiving what is just and in allowing us to act justly.

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►Plato: The Republic”:

Click on the image above to read it.-

Click on the image above to read it.-

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►Poll: Vote Here: “Which Definition of Justice do you think is more accurate?”: 

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►Bonustrack: Greek Mythology: “Dike, the Goddess of Justice”:

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The Greek goddess Dike was the personification of justice. In Hesiod´s  “Theogony” (lines 901/904), Dike – or Justice – is identified as the daughter of Zeus and Themis:

“His second wife was radiant Themis; she bore the Seasons, Lawfulness and Justice and blooming Peace, who watch over the works of mortal men, and also the Fates, to whom wise Zeus allotted high honors.”

And although the goddess of justice was in many respects more important in literature than religion, she still played a significant role in the lives of the ancient Greeks. It is suggested in some sources that Dike was instrumental in punishing wrong doers and rewarding those who did good deeds.

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♠Links Post:

http://www.iep.utm.edu/republic/

http://www.ohadmaiman.com/displayessay.asp?PageNumber=21

http://www.mythography.com/myth/welcome-to-mythography/greek-gods/spirits-1/dike/

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♠Aristotle´s “Nicomachean Ethics” and “Politics”:

“On The Concept of Justice”:

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In Book V of “Nichomachean Ethics”, Aristotle attempted to apply his theory of the mean to define justice.

In this sense, he dissects justice into its smallest components, causing him to postulate three kinds, from two main types.

There are two distinct forms of justice: Universal and Particular.

1) Universal Justice is concerned with obeying laws and with virtue as a whole. (Type: c) Equitable Justice).

2) Particular Justice is seen as one of the virtues and is divided into two types (Types a) Distributive Justice and b) Corrective or Rectificatory Justice)

a) Distributive Justice, which involves distributing honors, money and other assets; and b) Corrective or Rectificatory Justice; which includes: voluntary transactions involving paying debts, buying and selling, and so on; and involuntary transactions involving the giving of just restitution of harms inflicted.  

The Distributive justice reflects our understanding of justice as the mean between two extremes of unfairness. Everyone agrees that justice involves the distribution of things in proportion to merit. The man who acts unjustly gets too much, the victim too little, of what is good. Therefore that which is unjust in the narrow sense defies the proper “geometrical” proportion. 

As for Corrective or Rectificatory Justice, this shows our belief that in any exchange the just is what is fair. Unlike distributive justice, it involves not “geometrical,” but “arithmetical” proportionality, because it doesn’t take into account the parties involved, just the transaction itself. Both parties are treated as equals before the law in the exchange of goods, regardless of their individual merits. The role of the judge, therefore, is to restore the mean between too much and too little: to remedy an inequitable division between two parties by means of some sort o f arithmetical progression. He tries to equalize the inequality of the injustice. 

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The Doctrine Of The Mean is related to justice as a mean between two extremes, (vices), deficiency, and excess, or gain and loss.  It is important to stress here that Aristotle intends to define justice as a determinable mean between excesses which he presumes are vices.  

Justice is the intermediate position between doing injustice and suffering it; one has more, the other less, than their share. It is that state of virtue in which the individual is capable of doing just acts from choice and of distributing property, not in a way which gives himself more than his neighbour, but to each in proportionately equal manner. Injustice is choosing excess or deficiency in defiance of proportion. 

c) Equitable Justice is that kind of Universal Justice that Aristotle postulated as being a form of justice superior to legal justice.  Realizing that the “generality” of the law sometimes gave rise to injustices, Aristotle postulated equity, which was to function, though the judge, as a “correction of the law where it is defective owing to its universality”While all laws are stated universally, in some cases such a universal statement is not correct. The law thus states most is mostly right, and in cases where the statement does not apply correctly it is just for the legislator or the judge to correct for the deficiency of the law, as long as what is done is in accordance with the intention of the lawmaker, even if it conflicts with the exact statement. 

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►Comparative Graphic: Distributive Justice and Rectificatory or Corrective Justice (Types of Particular Justice):

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Aristotle also developed the idea of Justice in the Book III (chapter 12) of “Politics”

There he helds that “The political good is justice, and this is the common advantage”. Justice is considered to be a certain sort of equality, but what remains to be determined is what sort of equality and equality in what things. Persons preeminent in some things may not be preeminent in others, and some things are more of claim to honor and merit than others. 

Aristotle says “The virtue of justice is a feature of a state; for justice is the arrangement of the political association, an a sense of justice decides what is just”.

For him, Justice means giving equal measures to equals and unequal measures to unequals. Aristotle realizes that people are bad judges concerning themselves and that as in oligarchy and democracy they tend to confuse a part of justice with the whole of justice. Justice must be central concern for every city, because the city exists “not only for the sake of living but primarily for the sake of living well.” As a result, “virtue must be a care for every city,” and a city can only foster virtue to the extent that it is just.

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►Video: “On Aristotle´s Idea of Justice and The Theory of Golden Mean”:

Click on the image above to watch the video at YouTube.-

Click on the image above to watch the video at YouTube.-

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►”Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle:

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Click on the image above to read the book.-

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►”Politics” by Aristotle:

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Click on the image above to read the book.-

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♠Links Post:
http://mysite.verizon.net/vzepglv8/file22b.html
 http://www.novelguide.com/aristotles-ethics/summaries/book5
  http://www.gradesaver.com/aristotles-ethics/study-guide/section5/
  http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~cp28/justice.htm 
http://www.gradesaver.com/aristotles-politics/study-guide/section3/

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♠Plato´s “Ion” and Aristotle´s “Poetics”: “On the Concepts of Mimesis and Catharsis”:

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1) →Plato´s “Ion”: ” On the Concept of Mimesis as “The representation of nature”.

 And of Poetry as “A virtue of divine possession”:

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Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of nature. Plato wrote about mimesis in both in “Ion” and “The Republic” (Books II, III, and X). 

It is in “Ion” where this topic is more developped, Socrates discusses with Ion, a professional rhapsode who also lectures on Homer, the question of whether the rhapsode, a performer of poetry, gives his performance on account of his skill and knowledge or by virtue of divine possession.

Socrates engages Ion in a philosophical discussion. Ion admits when Socrates asks, that his skill in performance recitation is limited to Homer, and that all other poets bore him.

Socrates says that the god speaks first to the poet, then gives the rhapsode his skill,and thus, gods communicate to the people. Socrates posits that Ion must be out of his mind when he acts, because he can weep even though he has lost nothing, and recoil in fear when in front of an admiring audience. Ion says that the explanation for this is very simple: it is the promise of payment that inspires his deliberate disconnection from reality. In says that when he looks at the audience and sees them weeping, he knows he will laugh because it has made him richer, and that when they laugh, he will be weeping at losing the money (535e).

Socrates offers the metaphor of a magnet to explain how the rhapsode transmits the poet’s original inspiration from the muse to the audience.This argument is supposed to be an early example of a so-called genetic fallacy since his conclusion arises from his famous lodestone (magnet) analogy. 

According to Koeppe this argument can be summarized as follows: (a) Ion is inspired whenever he encounters Homer’s works; (b) Ion lacks the higher-order mental states needed for epistemic-justification while being inspired (c) Ion has no other relevant source of justification besides Homer’s works.

Socrates says that the rhapsode is not guided by rules of art, but is an inspired person who derives a mysterious power from the poet; and the poet, is inspired by the God. The poets and their interpreters may be compared to a chain of magnetic rings suspended from one another, and from a magnet. The magnet is the Muse, and the ring which immediately follows is the poet himself; from him are suspended other poets; there is also a chain of rhapsodes and actors, who also hang from the Muses, but are let down at the side; and the last ring of all is the spectator.

Through Socrates, Plato argues that “Ion’s talent as an interpreter cannot be an art, a definable body of knowledge or an ordered system of skills,” but instead must come from the divine madness or inspiration of the Muse.

The old quarrel between philosophy and poetry, which in “The Republic” leads to their final separation, is already working in the mind of Plato, and is embodied by him in the contrast between Socrates and Ion. Yet here, as in the Republic, Socrates shows a sympathy with the poetic nature. Also, the manner in which Ion is affected by his own recitations affords a lively illustration of the power which, in the Republic, Socrates attributes to dramatic performances over the mind of the performer.

Because the poet is subject to this divine madness, it is not his/her function to convey the truth. As Plato has it, only truth is the concern of the philosopher.

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Click on the image above to read Plato´s dialogue "Ion".-

Click on the image above to read Plato´s dialogue “Ion”.-

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2) →Aristotle´s “Poetics”: On The Concepts of Mimesis  as “the perfection and imitation of nature” 

And Catharsis as “a purification and purgation of emotions”:

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Similar to Plato’s writings about mimesis, Aristotle also defined mimesis as the perfection and imitation of nature. Art is not only imitation but also the use of mathematical ideas and symmetry in the search for the perfect, the timeless, and contrasting being with becoming. Nature is full of change, decay, and cycles, but art can also search for what is everlasting and the first causes of natural phenomena

Aristotle’s “Poetics”  is often referred to as the counterpart to this Platonic conception of poetry.

Aristotle considered it important that there be a certain distance between the work of art on the one hand and life on the other; we draw knowledge and consolation from tragedies only because they do not happen to us. Without this distance, tragedy could not give rise to catharsis.

Catharsis (from the Greek κάθαρσις katharsis meaning “purification” or “cleansing”) is the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal

Catharsis can only be achieved if we see something that is both recognisable and distant. Aristotle argued that literature is more interesting as a means of learning than history, because history deals with specific facts that have happened, and which are contingent, whereas literature, although sometimes based on history, deals with events that could have taken place or ought to have taken place.

Aristotle thought of drama as being “animitation of an action” and of tragedy  as “falling from a higher to a lower estate”. He held the characters in tragedy were better than the average human being, while those of comedy were worse.

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Click on the image above to read Aristotle´s "Poetics".-

Click on the image above to read Aristotle´s “Poetics”.-

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♠Quotes on Aristotle´s “Poetics”:

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♠Links Post:

http://ordinary-gentlemen.com/blog/2010/07/31/plato-ion-whats-the-problem-with-poets

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1635/1635-h/1635-h.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetics_(Aristotle)

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/poetics.html

http://www.novelguide.com/aristotles-poetics/novel-summary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharsis

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♠Last but not least: Thanks Salvela for the nomination:

The Cracking Chrispmouse Bloggywog Award:

Click on the image above to check out the nomination.-

Click on the image above to check out the nomination.-

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♠Plato´s Dialogue “Phaedo” (Φαίδων):

“Four Arguments to Prove the Inmortality of The Soul”:

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The dialogue Phaedo, which depicts the death of Socrates, is also Plato’s fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher’s final days, following EuthyphroApology, and Crito.

In the dialogue, Socrates discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock. Socrates has been imprisoned and sentenced to death by an Athenian jury for not believing in the gods of the state and for corrupting the youth of the city. The dialogue is told from the perspective of one of Socrates’ students, Phaedo of Elis.

Socrates explains to his friends that a true philosopher should look forward to death. The purpose of the philosophical life is to free the soul from the needs of the body. Since the moment of death is the final separation of soul and body, a philosopher should see it as the realization of his aim. Unlike the body, the soul is immortal, so it will survive death.

Socrates provides four arguments for believing the soul is immortal.

1) →The first one, known as the Argument from Opposites, is based on the observation that everything comes to be from out of its opposite. As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite. Plato then suggests the analogy of fire and cold. If the form of cold is imperishable, and fire, its opposite, was within close proximity, it would have to withdraw intact as does the soul during death. 

The Argument from Opposites absorbs a line of thinking that was popular among earlier philosophers such as Heraclitus and Pythagoras. By following their lead in seeing the world as being divided into opposites, Plato presents an initial argument that would be sympathetic to his contemporaries.

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2) →The second argument, known as the Theory of Recollection, asserts that learning is essentially an act of recollecting things we knew before we were born but then forgot. True knowledge, argues Socrates, is knowledge of the eternal and unchanging Forms that underlie perceptible reality. For example, we are able to perceive that two sticks are equal in length but unequal in width only because we have an innate understanding of the Form of Equality. That is, we have an innate understanding of what it means for something to be equal even though no two things we encounter in experience are themselves perfectly equal.  Since we can grasp this Form of Equality even though we never encounter it in experience, this argument implies that the soul must have existed prior to birth.

The Theory of Recollection introduces the idea of Forms and, in associating knowledge with the immortal soul, suggests that the soul that survives death is not just an empty life force but includes the intellect.

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3) →The third argument, known as the Argument from Affinity or from Scattering, distinguishes between those things that are immaterial, invisible, and immortal, and those things that are material, visible, and perishable. The soul belongs to the former category and the body to the latter. The soul, then, is immortal, although this immortality may take very different forms. A soul that is not properly detached from the body will become a ghost that will long to return to the flesh, while the philosopher’s detached soul will dwell free in the heavens.

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4) →The Final Argument is known as Argument from Form of Life. Socrates explains that the Forms, incorporeal and static entities, are the cause of all things in the world, and all things participate in Forms. For example, beautiful things participate in the Form of Beauty. The soul, by its very nature, participates in the Form of Life, which means the soul can never die. The final argument based on Forms is the only one Plato deems truly definitive, refuting the doubts of Simmias and Cebes (See The Objections by Simmias and Cebes & Replies to Simmias and Cebes).

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Click above to read Plato´s “Phaedo”.-

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♠Links Post:

http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/plato/section3.rhtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaedo

http://www3.nd.edu/~jspeaks/courses/2006-7/20208/plato-immortality.html

http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/calhoun/courses/201s/201phd.html?lookup=aristoph.+eccl.+1

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♠Last But Not Least:

Thank You Angie for sharing the Shine on Award with me:

Click above to check out the nomination and to visit "Family Answers Fast".-

Click above to check out the nomination and to visit “Family Answers Fast”.-

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