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Posts Tagged ‘Plato’s “Phaedrus”’

► “Hermes & Writing in Ancient Greece”: “Collaboration with Alan Severs”✍️:

Statue of Hermes/Mercury. Roman copy. 200 AD.


Summary:

“Hermes”, by W. B. Richmond. From “The magazine of art” vol. 9, 1886.

♠Divided into three sections, this article revolves around three main themes: Hermes, as The Greek God of Writing and his equivalents in other cultures; Plato´s derogatory ideas of writing, amidst the prevailing Oral Tradition; and how this eventually would change, as writing became a most accepted form, when the Greeks adopted the Phoenician Alphabet.

Greek God Hermes was the equivalent of the egyptian God Thoth, and from both of them resulted a Hybrid God: Hermes Trismegistus.

Hermes´roman counterpart was Mercury

In Norse Mythology, his Homologous figure was Odin.

Hermes and his associated figures are described in the first section.

♠The second section refers to Plato´s dialogue “Phaedrus”, emphasizing Socrates´quite negative statements concerning writing in that dialogue.

In “Phaedrus”Plato denies the legitimacy of the written word in favour of the oral tradition. With that purpose, Socrates tells us a myth, featuring Thoth (also known as Theuth and Hermes´egyptian equivalent).

Greece’s transition to literacy, was slow, and it augmented and transformed the traditions of oral culture which had for centuries been instrumental in the handing down of certain forms of cultural knowledge.

Before the advent of writing, Greek citizens’ knowledge of their history, the ways of their gods, and the attitudes, mores, and taboos of their society were orally transmitted. This occurred not only through parent-to-child communication and transmission within a community, but also through the poetry of the bards, most notably Homer and Hesiod.

The third section  delve into this issue, taking into account how writing effectively evolved in Ancient Greece.

As a matter of fact, Writing went through different phases, summed up as follows:

>Linear A Script: It was the written language of the Minoans of Crete, remains undecipherable.

>Linear B Script: It consists of the Mycenaean Civilization and the only partially decipherable Linear B script of Crete. 

>Phoenician Alphabet: It was the alphabet of ancient Phoenicia, which first came to Greece sometime before the 8th century BCE, from whence it spread.

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Section I. Hermes, Thoth, Hermes Trismegistus, Mercury and Odin:

Hermes was son of Zeus and one of the Pleiades, Maia

Hermes, Greek God. 540 BC

The name Hermes appears to have originated in the word for “stone heap.”

Probably since prehistoric times there existed in Crete and in other Greek regions a custom or erecting a herma, consisting of an upright stone surrounded at its base by a heap of smaller stones. Such monuments were used to serve as boundaries or as landmarks for wayfarers. A connection existed between these simple monuments and the deity named Hermes.

Hermes had many attributes and represented many things. Hermes was the Olympian god of herds and flocks, travellers and hospitality, roads and trade, thievery and cunning, heralds and diplomacy, astronomy and astrology. Besides, he was the herald and personal messenger of Zeus, and also the guide of the dead who led souls down into the underworld. 

He was also a god of science and wisdom, art, speech, eloquence. And, most importantly: “the God of Writing”. 

The Greek God Hermes, as God of Writing, finds his analogue in Egypt as the ancient Wisdom God Thoth (sometimes spelled Thouth, Theuth or Tahuti). 

Thoth, Egyptian God of Writing.

Thoth was important in many myths of Pharaonic Egypt: he played a role in the creation myth, he was recorder of the gods, and the principal pleader for the soul at the judgment of the dead. It was he who invented writing. According to relevant sources, he wrote all the ancient texts, including the most esoteric ones, including “The Book of Breathings”, which taught humans how to become gods.

In ancient Egypt,  Thoth created script. Besides, he was connected with the moon and thus considered the ruler of the night.

Furthermore, Thoth acted as an emissary between the contending armies of Horus (Egyptian God of the sky and kingship) and Seth (god of the desert, storms, disorder and violence in ancient Egyptian). Thoth eventually came to negotiate the peace treaty between these two gods. His role as a mediator between the opposites is thus made evident, perhaps prefiguring the role of the alchemical Mercury as the “medium of the conjunction.”

Both Hermes and Thoth were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures.

Hermes, the Greek god of interpretive communication, was combined with Thoth, the Egyptian god of wisdom, to become the patron of astrology and alchemy. In addition, both gods were psychopomps, guiding souls to the afterlife. Hermes Trismegistus may be a representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.

As Alan Severs says in his post “The Grammar of Magic”:

“Writing and magic have always been closely associated. The Egyptian God Thoth was thought to be  the inventor of writing and the patron of every magical art. The considerable cultural contact and resulting overlap over the centuries because of conquest and trade between Egypt, Greece and Rome led to the deities Hermes and Mercury who shared many of the same attributes as Thoth before they all further blended together, creating the composite figure that was to later an immeasurable influence in the history of ideas, Hermes Trismegistus”.

Last, but not least: there is still another Egyptian parallel. Specifically, in the figure of Anubis. In classical mythology, Hermanubis was a god who combined Hermes with Anubis (given that they were both conductors of souls).

Hermes Trismegistus, floor mosaic in the Cathedral of Siena. 1480s.

Hermes´roman equivalent, Mercury had essentially the same aspects as Hermes. He also wore winged shoes and a winged hat, and carried the caduceus, a herald’s staff with two entwined snakes that was Apollo‘s gift to Hermes. He was often accompanied by a cockerel, herald of the new day, a ram or goat, symbolizing fertility, and a tortoise, referring to Mercury’s legendary invention of the lyre from a tortoise-shell.

Like Hermes, he was also a god of messages, eloquence and of trade, particularly of the grain trade. He was also, like Hermes, the Romans’ psychopomp, whose ability was to lead the newly deceased souls to the afterlife.

Thoth. Hermes Trismegistus and Mercury.

Another related God, given his attributes, is Odin.

Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic people, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the major mythological Old Norse texts, the Poetic and Prose Eddas, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded, frequently wielding a spear named Gungnir, and wearing a cloak and a broad hat. He is often accompanied by his animal companions: two wolves and two ravens named Huginn and Muninn (Thought and Memory). As well as being the Germanic equivalent of Hermes, Odin appears to have marked shamanistic tendencies as he frequently has ecstatic visions in other realms after undergoing various trials and ordeals.

In Norse Mythology he was associated with healing, death, royalty, the gallows, knowledge, battle, sorcery, poetry and the runic alphabet. In the long Eddic, gnomic poem Havamal (The Words of Odin the High One) Odin sacrifices himself to himself by hanging from a tree (presumably Yggdrasil, the World Tree) for nine days and nine nights in order to obtain knowledge of the runes, which is suggested throughout Norse mythology as being a symbolic alphabet used for magical purposes. 

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►Section II. Plato´s dialogue “Phaedrus”, in which Socrates pronounced himself in favour of the prevailing Oral Tradition and, thus, against writing:

In his dialogue “Phaedrus”; Plato denies the legitimacy of the written word as capable of conveying knowledge in any truly significant way.

In this dialogue, Socrates puts the case against writing into the mouth of  Thamus, the Egyptian equivalent of Zeus.

When Thamus is presented by the god Theuth (Thoth) with the invention of writing, Thoth claims it “will make the Egyptians wiser and will improve their memories, for it is an elixir of memory and wisdom that I have discovered”. But Thamus replies:

‘Most ingenious Theuth, one man has the ability to beget arts, but the ability to judge of their usefulness or harmfulness to their users belongs to another; and now you who are the father of letters, have been led by your affection to ascribe to them a power the opposite of that which they really possess. For this invention will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practice their memory. Their trust in writing, produced by external characters which are no part of themselves, will discourage the use of their own memory within them. You have invented an elixir not of memory, but of reminding; and you offer your pupils the appearance of wisdom, not true wisdom, for they will read many things without instruction and will therefore seem to know many things, when they are for the most part ignorant and hard to get along with, since they are not wise, but only appear wise’. (Plato´s “Phaedrus”. Line 140 and following).
Socrates adds his own conviction that written words are inhuman, unresponsive to questioning, and indiscriminate as to whom they address themselves. At best, they can only “remind him who knows the matter about which they are written” (Plato´s “Phaedrus”. Line 278).

Walter Ong points out in his book “Orality and Literacy” [*Click here to read book] that these denunciations can by the modern reader as the same ones levelled by many against computers. This analogy is instructive because it allows us to understand in some small way the nature of the enormous change that was taking place in early Greek culture at the time of Socrates and Plato: the transition from a dominantly oral mode of transmitting knowledge to a slowly emerging literate one.

The Egyptian god Thoth, or Tehuti, in the form of an ibis. With him is his associate, the ape, proferring the Eye of Horus.

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►Section III. Towards a Literate Society: Writing in Ancient Greece:

1) >Linear A and Linear B Scripts:

Linear A (1700 BC)  was the written language of the Minoans of Crete. It consists of 60 phonetic symbols representing syllables and 60 symbols representing sounds and concrete objects or abstract ideas. There is no consensus on how to translate the Linear A symbols

Linear B (1450 BC) was first studied by Sir Arthur Evans, but it was not until 1952 that it was deciphered by Michael Ventris.

Linear B  is generally seen as a more simplified and less pictorial version of the earlier scripts . It is also far more cursive in its shape. The script consists of about 87 symbols, which each represent a syllable, as well as some ideograms which represent an entire word or idea. It seems that the Myceneans used writing not to keep historical records but strictly as a device to register the flow of goods and produce into the palaces from a complex, highly centralized economy featuring regional networks of collection and distribution. [To see examples of  decipherments of Linear A and Linear B Minoans tablets, please visit this guest post at “The Shield of Achilles”].

2) >The Phoenician Alphabet in Greece:

The alphabet of most modern languages was originated in ancient Phoenicia (11oo BC) and first came to Greece sometime before the 8th century BC, from whence it spread. Homer’s “Illiad” and “Odyssey”, written around 800 BC, are early examples of the Greek use of the Phoenician alphabet, as are the classics “Theogony” and “Works and Days”, by Hesiod.  Homer’s poems appear to have been recorded shortly after the script’s invention: an inscription from Ischia in the Bay of Naples, dated 740 BC, appears to refer to a text of the “Iliad”; and illustrations inspired by the Polyphemus episode in the “Odyssey” were found in Mykonos in 715 BC.

Herodotus claimed that the Phoenician alphabet was brought by Cadmus to Boeotia where he founded the city of Thebes.

The early Greek alphabet, based on the alphabet of the Phoenicians, was different from the linear and hieroglyphic scripts preceding it in that each symbol represents a single consonant as opposed to a syllable.

The Phoenician alphabet consisted of 22 characters with vowel sounds built into the symbols. The Greeks modified the Phoenician alphabet by changing some of the symbols as well as creating separate vowels.  They also made their alphabet more phonetically correct.

By using individual symbols to represent vowels and consonants, the Greeks created a writing system that could, for the first time, represent speech in an unambiguous manner. Furthermore, while Linear B seems to have only been used for inventories and lists, the Greek alphabet was used for literary purposes. Writing became not simply a means of recording events, but also an art form in itself.

⇒Writing from right to left. Bidirectional writing. Writing from left to right:

In the earliest versions of the alphabet, the Greeks complied with the Phoenician practice of writing from right to left and the letters had a left-facing orientation.

A good example of writing from right to left is shown in the inscription on the so-called Nestor’s Cup, a clay drinking vessel of the 8th century BC, which bears a famous inscription.

The text of the inscription runs:

Nestor’s cup, good to drink from.
Whoever drinks from this cup, him straightaway
the desire of beautiful-crowned Aphrodite will seize.

The so-called Nestor’s cup from Pithekoussai, Ischia and its inscription.

This was followed by a period of bidirectional writing, which means that the direction of the writing was in one direction on one line but in the opposite direction on the next, a practice known as boustrophedon.

During the 5th century BCE, however, the direction of Greek writing was standardized as left to right, and all the letters adopted a fixed right-facing orientation. 


Conclusion:

So far, we have seen that there are clear and effective similarities, when it comes to certain Gods.

Gods Hermes, Thoth (and the hybrid resulting of both: Hermes Trismegistus); as well as Mercury and Odin, they all represent similar ideas.

They all seem to be fused in an eclectic space of cultural juxtaposition, despite the cultural differences.

This could prove Carl Jung´s thesis of the Collective Unconscious. According to him, the human collective unconscious is populated by archetypes and universal symbols, shared among beings of the same species.

Worth noting that Hermes and his equivalents were mainly considered here keeping in mind their specific roles as “Gods of Writing”.

Plato was a keen defender of Oral tradition, against writing. This is evident particularly in his dialogue “Phaedrus”, in which Socrates (by retelling an Egyptian myth), states that Writing will produce forgetfulness in the minds of those who learn to use it, because they will not practice their memory.

Pisistratus (6th century BC/ 527 BC) was tyrant of Athens whose unification of Attica and consolidation and rapid improvement of the city’s prosperity helped to make possible it’s later preeminence in Greece.

Pisistratus clearly supported Oral tradition. And he did so, by specifically encouraging Dramatic Arts and TheatreIndeed, theatre was a key technological factor of specialization in Greek culture. The choral poetry offered a fissure through which the choir was first sung until the actors took over in order to visually stage the oral poetry.

Probably, this was the most evident symptom of the transition from an Oral culture to a hybrid, semi-oral or audiovisual Culture, which dominated the fifth century BC and classicism. At last, by the end of the century, Writing prevailed.

When introducing writing, (Linear A, Linear B, and especially alphabetic writing), the Ancient Greeks privileged the visual sense against other senses such as seeing or hearing. Alongside this changes, their conception of space and time was also altered, going from discontinuous to a linear, homogeneous conception. Hence, the chronological narrative and History itself arose as new types of discourses.

By objectifying words and making meaning accessible to a much longer and more intense meaning of what is orally possible, writing fostered private thought and increased awareness of individual differences.

Thus, Writing led to free initiative and creativity of the Ancient Greek society as a plural “whole”, while preserving the value of the individual forms. Such a tendency could be also considered a “call for democracy”, as a political correlate of literacy, expressivity, abstraction and individualization.



♠About Alan Severs: Alan defines himself as an occasional writer of fiction, poetry; and essays on modernism, mysticism, mythology, magic and mystery. His blog, Cakeordeathsite covers many of these and other interesting subjects. Please check it out hereThank you, Alan! 🐬

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Click to visit Alan´s blog.-

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Links Post:
https://http://www.ancient.eu/script/
http://www.omniglot.com/writing/lineara.htm
http://www.ancient.eu/timeline/writing/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nestor%27s_Cup
https://cakeordeathsite.wordpress.com/2017/03/24/the-grammaire-of-magic/
http://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Alphabet/
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Hermes.html
http://www.john-uebersax.com/plato/myths/phaedrus.htm
http://www.csuchico.edu/phil/sdobra_mat/platopaper.html

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PEGASUSHEADER

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Bellerophon, Pegasus and Khimaira. Kylix Laconian Black Figure. Ca 570 - 565 BC.

Bellerophon, Pegasus and Khimaira. Kylix Laconian Black Figure. Ca 570 – 565 BC.

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Pegasus was a Hippoi Athanatoi, meaning an immortal horse of the Gods. he was a winged horse which sprang forth from the neck of the Gorgon Medusa when she was beheaded by the hero Perseus. 

When Perseus struck off the head of Medusa, with whom Poseidon had once had intercourse in the form of a horse or a bird, there sprang forth from her Chrysaor and the horse Pegasus.

Chrysaor (meaning “Golden Sword”) was usually represented as giant, but may also have been conceived of as a winged boar.

As to Pegasus, he obtained that because he was believed to have made his appearance near the sources (pêgai) of Oceanus.

Liz Greene calls the winged horse the bridge between opposites: “An earthy creature which has the power to ascend into the spiritual realm”[Source: Symbol Reader].

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“The Birth of Pegasus and Chrysaor” by Edward Burne-Jones (1885).

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Pegasus was tamed by Bellerophon, a corinthian hero, who rode him into battle against the Chimera.

On a side note, the Chimera was a creature of Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal. 

Usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat  arising from its back, and a tail that might end with a snake´s head. The Chimera was one of the offspring of Typhon and Echidna and a sibling of such monsters as Cerberus and the Hydra.

After Pegasus had conquered the Chimera, he endeavoured to rise up to heaven with his winged horse, but fell down upon the earth, either from fear or from giddiness, or being thrown off by Pegasus, who was rendered furious by a gad-fly which Zeus had sent. But Pegasus continued his flight.

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“Bellerophon Rides to Kill the Chimera” by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov 1829.

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The winged horse was also placed amongst the stars as a constellation whose rising marked the arrival of the warmer weather of spring and seasonal rainstorms.

Hence, Pegasus became a constellation in the northern sky, which brightest star is the orange supergiant Epsilon Pegasi

Both Hesiod and Plato made reference to this emplacement:

“Pegasus, soaring, left the earth, the mother of sheep flocks, and came to the immortals, and there he lives in the household of Zeus, and carries the thunder and lightning for Zeus of the counsels”. (Hesiod, Theogony).

“A pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the winged horses and the charioteers of the gods are all of them noble and of noble descent… Zeus, the mighty lord, holding the reins of a winged chariot, leads the way in heaven, ordering all and taking care of all; and there follows him the array of gods and demigods, marshalled in eleven bands [the twelve Olympians]”.  (Plato, Phaedrus, 246).

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Pegasus with the foal Equuleus next to it, as depicted in Urania's Mirror, a set of constellation cards published in London in 1825. The horses appear upside-down in relation to the constellations around them.

Pegasus with the foal Equuleus next to it, as depicted in Urania’s Mirror, a set of constellation cards published in London in 1825. The horses appear upside-down in relation to the constellations around them.

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From a symbolic point, Pegasoi or winged horses occur in ancient art drawing the chariots of various gods and goddesses, including Helios, the sun and Selene, the moon.

The hero Pelops was also given a chariot drawn by winged horses by the god Poseidon.

Furthermore, Pegasus is a Pterippus (pteros in Greek means “winged” and hippos means “horse”).

The symbolic meaning of the horse is pretty intense with themes of power and mobility.

The horse alone also carries archetypal themes of unifying grounded stability (four feet on the ground) with higher ideals (from speed and mobility).

This theme really comes to life when the horse is winged. The Pterippus, or winged horse, is a symbol of aspiring to the greatest heights of accomplishment.

Grounded by the stability of its body, yet in flight by the ephemeral power of its wings, Pegasus offers a great analogy because of the dichotomy it offers. 

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“Perseus on Pegasus Slaying Medusa “by John Singer Sargent. 20th century.

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Perseus and Andromeda, detail of

Perseus and Andromeda, detail of “Pegasus”, by Peter Paul Rubens. 1622.

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►Gallery: “Creatures, Characters and Gods featured in this post”:

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►Gallery: “Pegasus, The Winged Horse”:

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►Anex: A List of More Types of Horses in Greek Mythology (Gallery Below):

The Centaur, a creature with the head and torso of a man and the lower body of a horse. 

•The Hippocampus, a creature with an upper body that resembles a horse and a dolphin-like lower body.

•The Hippogriff, a beast with a head and front legs of an eagle whilst the rest of its body is that of a horse.

•The Ichthyocentaur, a creature which supposedly was one-third horse, one-third fish, and one-third human. Also known as Sea Centaur.

•The Ipotanes, a being that looked overall human, but had the legs, hindquarters, tail, and ears of a horse.

•The Sileni, bipedal beings that appear human form the waist up and horse the waist down. They were  were rustic spirits in the train of the God of Wine, Dionysus.

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Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Ther/HipposPegasos.html
http://www.theoi.com/Ther/Hippoi.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimera_(mythology)
http://www.space.com/16743-constellation-pegasus.html
http://rabirius.me/2016/01/03/feeding-pegasus/
http://www.whats-your-sign.com/meaning-of-wings.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perseus_and_Andromeda_(Rubens)
http://symbolreader.net/2013/08/11/light-and-matter-the-perseid-meteor-shower/

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►Greek Mythology: “Phaeton, Helios’ Son”:

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"Phaeton" by Gustave Moreau (1878).

“Phaeton” by Gustave Moreau (1878).

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Phaeton (derived from the greek verb phaethô, “to shine: “the shining” or “radiant one”)  was the young son of Helios and Clymene

According to the roman poet, Ovid, Phaethon was the son of Helios, the god of the Sun, and Clymene, an Oceanid Nymph,who was also mother of the Seven Heliad Nymphs (Paethon’ sisters) .

It was not until Phaethon reached a certain age, however, that he learned that his father was indeed the Sun-god. When he realized who  his father was, Phaethon decided to meet Helios. He therefore went on a journey to the East, where he found his father’s grand palace.

Phaeton begged his father to let him drive the chariot of the sun. 

Helios tried to talk him out of it by telling him that not even Zeus would dare to drive it, as the chariot was fiery hot and the horses breathed out flames.

But Phaeton insisted and at the end Helios reluctantly conceded to his son’s wishes.

When the day came, the fierce horses that drew the chariot felt that it was empty because of the lack of the sun-god’s weight, and went out of control, setting the earth aflame

Zeus quickly realized that this was a dangerous situation. So the ruler of the Greek gods threw a thunderbolt directly at Phaethon, hurling his flaming body into the waters of the river Eridanos.

His sisters, the Heliades, gathered on the banks, and in their mourning with transformed into amber-teared poplar trees.

After his death, Phaethon was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Auriga (“The Charioteer”).

Plato used a similar analogy to the one of Phaeton’s myth in his dialogue “Phaedrus”There, Plato presents the Analogy of the Chariot to explain the tripartite nature of the human soul.

In Plato’s Phaedrus, the charioteer joins a procession of gods, led by Zeus, on this trip into the heavens and have to try to successfully pilot the chariot, controllin and balancing the black and white horse.

When the chariot plummets to earth, the horses lose their wings, and the soul becomes embodied in human flesh. The degree to which the soul falls, and the “rank” of the mortal being it must then be embodied in is based on the amount of Truth it beheld while in the heavens.

As stated by this analogy, the  rational part of the soul is represented by the charioteer. The spirited part (Thymos) is represented by the white horse while the black horse symbolizes the appetitive part of the soul.

Besides, Phaeton’s myth has similarities with Icarus’ myth, which tells the tragic story of  Dedalus’ son, a young man who is driven to prove himself by reaching the Sun with waxed wings, regardless of the consequences. 

As in Icarus’ myth, Phaeton´s moral is to “take the middle way” by warning against heedless pursuit of instant gratification (represented in both myths by the horses. And, strictly following Plato’s definition in the “Phaedrus”, by the black horse, which represents man’s appetites ). 

The implicit aristotelian idea in these myths is that virtue is “a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount” (Aristotle’s Golden Mean). In this last sense both myths highlight the greek idea of Sophrosyne, which etymologically means healthy-mindedness and from there moderation guided by knowledge and balance. 

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"The Fall of Phaeton" by Peter Paul Rubens  (1605).

“The Fall of Phaeton” by Peter Paul Rubens (1605).

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Onthe Riht: . On the Left: “The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus” by Merry-Joseph Blondel (1819).

On the Right: “The Fall of Phaeton” by Peter Paul Rubens (1605). On the Left: “The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus” by Merry-Joseph Blondel (1819).

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"Phaeton driving the sun-chariot"  by Nicolas Bertin (1720).

“Phaeton driving the sun-chariot” by Nicolas Bertin (1720).

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 ►Gallery: “Phaeton, Helios’ Son”:

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"The fall of Phaeton" : From the series "The Metamorphoses" (Ovid) by Hendrik Goltzius (1588).

“The fall of Phaeton” : From the series “The Metamorphoses” (Ovid) by Hendrik Goltzius (1588).

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"The Fall of Paethon" by Michelangelo (1533).

“The Fall of Paethon” by Michelangelo (1533).

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►Michelangelo Buonarotti, “The Fall of Phaeton”, a drawing based on Phaeton’s Myth (Last drawing above):

Description: At the top of the sheet, Jupiter sits on his eagle and hurls a thunderbolt at Phaethon, son of Apollo, who plunges from a horse-drawn chariot. Phaethon had asked to drive the chariot of the sun, but he lost control and to save the earth Jupiter destroyed him. Underneath, his sisters, the weeping Heliades, are changed into poplar trees while another relation, Cycnus, has become a swan. The reclining male figure is the river god, Eridanus into whose river (the River Po in Italy) Phaethon fell.

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►Suggested Poem “The Key to Unity” By Uncle Tree:

Click on the Image above to read Keith's Poem.

Click on the Image above to read Uncle Tree’s Poem.

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Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Phaethon.html
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/AsterPhaethon.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaethon
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Phaethon
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/pd/m/michelangelo,_fall_of_phaeton.aspx

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►Last but not Least: Three Awards: 

►Here are the Award Rules, which are the same for all the awards:

1) The nominee shall display the respective logo on her/his blog.

•Note: To get the logo just click on the one which corresponds among the ones appearing in the Gallery below.

This time I will nominate new followers and/or bloggers I have recently met or that I haven’ t nominated before.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

►Aquí están las reglas comunes a todos los Premios:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio que le corresponda en su blog.

2) Nominar a otros diez (10) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

•Nota: Para obtener el logo, hacer click en la imagen que corresponda al mismo, de entre todas las que aparecen debajo.

En esta oportunidad nominaré a nuevos seguidores y/ a bloggers que conocí recientemente o que aún no he nominado.

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Premio Dardos.

Premio Dardos.

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I) Black Blogger Award: I have received this award from Gorrión de Asfalto and Profecías Mayas del Fin del Mundo.Both Blogs worth checking out. The first blog features Cultural events, Poetry, Guests Posts, among the main categories. The second one has as its most important topics: Anthropology, Archeology and Mexico’s Ancient Civilizations Culture.

►My nominees for the Black Wolf Blogger Award are/Mis nominados para el Black Wolf Blogger Award son:

1.Ensayos y Poemas  2. Aquí no sobran las Palabras 3. Té, Chocolate, Café 4. Tintero y Pincel 5. Ser un Ser de Luz 6. Reescrituras 7. Ya Baki Entel Baki 8. Indahs 9. Toritto 10. Lens and Pens by Sally.

II) The Versatile Blogger Award: Micheline Walker nominated me for this award. Her blog truly stands out and it includes posts related with Art, Middle Age Literature, symbolism in art and texts and their interpretation.

I was also nominated for this award from the poetry blog Condena, Mis Poemas. If you like spanish you’d better check out poems over there (You can also use the translator!). Last but not least, I also got this one from the blog called Ritual de las Palabras, with interesting contents that include mainly brief stories and Literature in general.

►My nominees for the Versatile Blogger Award are/Mis nominados para el Versatile Blogger Award son:

1. 21 Shades of Blue 2. Lady Sighs 3. Anna: Prostor 4. Feline Alchemy 5. ABC of Spirit Talk 6. Word Dreams 7. Valentina Expressions 8. Les Rêves d’ Eugenie 9. Ramo di Parole 10. Geiko Usume.

III) Wonderful Team Member Readership Award: I got this nomination from the blog Ensayos y Poemas, which includes posts on Writing, reviews of books, Poetry and Sociology.

►My nominees for the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award are/Mis nominados para el Wonderful Team Member Readership Award son:

1. Micheline Walker  2. Gorrión de Asfalto 3. Profecías Mayas del Fin del Mundo 4.Condena, Mis Poemas 5. Sonu Duggal 6. Espace Perso de Georges 7. Family Life is More 8. Ruka de Colores 9. Le Bon Côté des Choses 10. Willowdot21

IV) Premio Dardos: He sido nominada para este Premio desde los blogs amigos en Castellano, Ser un Ser de Luz, Aquí no sobran las Palabras, Reescrituras, Tintero y Pincel y Té, Chocolate, Café. Todos estos son excelentes espacios, mayormente de Literatura, pero también de Arte, Meditación y cuestiones relacionadas con el Universo.

►Mis nominados para el Premio Dardos son:

1. Compartimos 2. De Partida 3. Postales del Futuro 4. Natan Vue 5. Corriendo en la Niebla 6. Clínica Creativa 7. Blog de Jack Moreno 8. Nascaranda 9. Debe de Haber 10. Personajes y Leyendas.

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Thanks a lot for dropping by. Best wishes to everyone, Aquileana 😀

guarda_griega1_3

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Greek Mythology: “Prometheus, The Rebel Titan”:

"Prometheus bringt der Menschheit das Feuer" by Heinrich Friedrich Füger. (1817).

“Prometheus bringt der Menschheit das Feuer” by Heinrich Friedrich Füger. (1817).-

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Prometheus was a son of Iapetus by Clymene (one of the Oceanids). He was brother of Epimetheus, Menoetius and Atlas.

Prometheus and Epimetheus, were two titans who were spared imprisonment in Tartarus because they had not fought with the Titans during the war with the Gods.

They were both given the task of creating man.

Prometheus shaped man out of mud, and Athena breathed life into his clay figure.

Prometheus had assigned  Epimetheus the task of giving the creatures of the earth their various qualities, such as swiftness, cunning, strength, fur, and wings.

Woefully, by the time he got to man, Epimetheus had given all the good qualities out and there were none left for man.

So Prometheus decided to make man stand upright as the gods did and to give him fire.

His attempts to better the lives of his creation brought him into direct conflict with Zeus.

Zeus was angry at Prometheus for three things: being tricked by the sacrifices, stealing fire for man, and refusing to tell Zeus which of Zeus’s children would dethrone him. 

As punishment for these rebellious acts, Zeus ordered Hephaestus (Vulcan) make a woman made of clay named Pandora. Zeus gave her a box and forbade her from opening it. Then he sent her down to earth, where her curiosity led her to open the lid. Out flew sorrow, mischief, and all other misfortunes that plagued mankind. 

In the famous story of Pandora’s box, we may learn how earthly hardship was born.

Worth noting that the female is blamed for all human suffering, like Eve in the Judeo-Christian tradition.

The Pandora story also underscores Zeus’s crafty nature. From Pandora’s box, mortals and gods alike understand the power of the God and fear his authority.

To punish Prometheus for this hubris (extreme pride), Zeus also took him to the Caucasus Mountains, and chained him to a rock.

There he was tormented day and night by a giant eagle tearing at his his ever-regenerating liver

Generations later the great hero Heracles came along and released Prometheus  from his torture.

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“So spake Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is everlasting; and from that time he was always mindful of the trick, and would not give the power of unwearying fire to the Melian race of mortal men who live on the earth“. (Hesiod’s “Theogony”).

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“Main Sources For Prometheus’ Myth”

Hesiod, a greek poet, lived in about 700 B.C.E. and composed two poems,the “Theogony” and “The Works and Days”. The “Creation” section of “The Works and Days” contains the story of Prometheus’ theft of fire. The excerpt in this chapter comes from Hesiod’s “Theogony”, a poem describing the nature and generations of the gods, and it is in this context that the poet tells the story of Prometheus.

Aeschylus, a greek playwright who wrote “Prometheus Bound” in about 430 B.C.E. The play is a tragedy that details the sufferings of Prometheus for his rebellion against Zeus and foreshadows his eventual release at the hands of Heracles, Zeus’ son.

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"The Titans Prometheus and Atlas". Greek Vase, dated 500 BC. Laconian black figure.

“The Titans Prometheus and Atlas”. Greek Vase, dated 500 BC. Laconian black figure.-

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 ►Side Notes: “Daring Prometheus and the Origin of Homosexuality”:

From Aesop, Fables 517 (At: Plato’s “Phaedrus” 4.16):

Someone asked Aesop why lesbians and effeminates had been created.

And old Aesop explained: `The answer lies once again with Prometheus, the original creator of our common clay. All day long, Prometheus had been separately shaping those natural members which modesty conceals beneath our clothes, and when he was about to apply these private parts to the appropriate bodies Liber (Dionysos) unexpectedly invited him to dinner. Prometheus came home late, unsteady on his feet and with a good deal of heavenly nectar flowing through his veins. With his wits half asleep in a drunken haze he stuck the female genitalia on male bodies and male members on the ladies. This is why modern lust revels in perverted pleasures’ .

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Worth Reading: Prometheus, by Lord Byron. Post at: Stuff Jeff Reads.-

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Slideshare: “Prometheus, Through Art”:

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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Links Post: 
http://www.gradesaver.com/mythology/study-guide/section3/
http://predoc.org/docs/index-201831.html?page=2
http://www.prometheas.org/mythology.html
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/TitanPrometheus.html
http://www.crystalinks.com/titans.html
http://www.moyak.com/papers/hesiod-theogony.html
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►Awards Section:

1) My good friend and writer Aisha, from Aisha’ Oasis has nominated me for The Liebster Award. You can check out her post here: Aisha’s Egypt: “11 Little Secrets and a Liebster“. Thank you very much, Aisha  ❤…
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liebster-award
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My Nominees  for this award are: 
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Rules: Each nominne must nominate eleven bloggers. Besides, they will have to answer the eleven questions presented here. They will also have to link to the blogger who has nominated them.
►Here are the eleven questions from Aisha. I am also answering them:
1. Where is your favorite place to live?: Close to the mountains or near the beach.
2. What is your favorite character trait?: Loyalty.
3. Do you have a talent?: Too many (or none?)…
4. What is your favorite movie of all time?: Doctor Zhivago.
5. What is the most important thing to you in your life?: To live happily ever after.
6. Who is the person you look up to the most, and why?: God, because he is omnipotent.
7. What annoys you the most?: Iniquity.
8. Do you have a dream you’d like to share?: I’d love to fly.
9. What gives you the most happiness?: Spending time with the people I love.
10. What is your biggest accomplishment?: My academic average.
11. Why do you like to blog?: Because I like to share personal interests with other bloggers and to learn from their posts.
─✽✿✽──
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2) Desde el gran blog, Salvelahe recibido una doble nominación para los Premios Sisterhood of The World Bloggers Award y WordPress Family Award. Podés ver el post aquí. Muchas gracias, querido Josep.
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Mis nominados son:
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sisterhood-award
wordpress-award
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►Reglas: Enlazar el blog que te ha nominado. Incluir la imagen del premio. Nominar once blogs. Responder los puntos personales.

►Aquí están los puntos a contestar y mis respuestas:

Su color favorito: Blanco.
Su animal preferido: El gato.
Su bebida favorita sin alcohol: Coca Cola Light.
¿Facebook o Twitter?: Twitter.
¿Prefieres recibir o dar regalos? Recibir regalos.
Su número favorito: El 7.
Su día favorito de la semana: Sábado.
Su flor favorita: Rosa.
¿Cuál es tu pasión? Encontrar respuestas.

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