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Posts Tagged ‘Mitología Griega’

arachne0

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"Arachne or Dialectics" by Paolo Veronese. 1520.

“Arachne or Dialectics” by Paolo Veronese. 1520.

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In Greek Mythology, Arachne was a Lydian woman, the daughter of a famous Tyrian purple wool dyer, who was highly gifted in the art of weaving.

Soon news of Arachne’s artistry spread far and wide and it is said that nymphs from the forests left their frolicking and gathered around Arachne to watch her weave.

All this adulation was more than Arachne could handle and being an ordinary mortal who was quite vulnerable to human failings, she became quite arrogant about her superior skills. She was annoyed at being regarded as a pupil of Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, and began bragging about her skills, proclaiming herself to be far more superior to even Athena.

"Athena and Arachne" by Antonio Tempesta. 1599.

“Athena and Arachne” by Antonio Tempesta. 1599.

Athena took offense and set up a contest between them. Presenting herself as an old woman. 

When they finally met, Athena cast aside her disguise and revealed her true identity to the prideful maiden. “Now we shall see who is the better craftsman, for I challenge you to a contest of skill. The winner shall be honored, while the loser concurs to weave no more”, the goddess declared and took her place before the loom.

Athena gracefully entwined the colorful threads into a prophetic scene depicting mortals being duly punished for their defamatory actions against the gods.

For her offering, Arachne chose to create a tapestry detailing some of the more scandalous moments in the lives of the Olympians. Arachne’s work of art, according to the Latin narrative, featured twenty-one scenes of the various misdemeanors of the mighty gods, including ZeusPoseidon, Apollo, Dionysus and others.

Although Arachne had shown little respect for the gods by choosing a subject that made a mockery of the supreme deities of the Olympus, even Athena had to admit that her work was brilliant and flawless.

Athena was infuriated by the mortal’s pride. In a final moment of anger, she destroyed Arachne’s tapestry.

Image from Giovanni Boccaccio's "De mulieribus claris". 1474.

Image from Giovanni Boccaccio’s “De mulieribus claris”. 1474.

Unable to cope with her feelings, Arachne decided to hang herself. 

Athena stepped in and saved her from that death; but, angry still, pronounced another doom: “Although I grant you life, most wicked one, your fate shall be to dangle on a cord, and your posterity forever shall take your example, that your punishment may last forever!”.

Even as she spoke, before withdrawing from her victim’s sight, she sprinkled her with extract of herbs of Hecate.

Ovid tells us in his book “Metamorphoses, that at once all hair fell off, her nose and ears remained not, and her head shrunk rapidly in size, as well as all her body, leaving her diminutive. Her slender fingers gathered to her sides as long thin legs; and all her other parts were fast absorbed in her abdomen, whence she vented a fine thread; and ever since, Arachne, as a spider, weaves her web. After her transformation, Arachne hid from Athena by weaving the rope on which she hanged herself into an intricate web.

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⇒Background and Interpretation of the Myth:

Arachne depicted as a half-spider half-human in Gustave Doré's illustration for an 1861 edition of Dante's Purgatorio.

Arachne depicted as a half-spider half-human in Gustave Doré’s illustration for an 1861 edition of Dante’s Purgatorio.

There are many versions of this myth. It may have originated in Lydian mythology; but the myth, briefly mentioned by Virgil in 29 BC, is known from the later Greek mythos after Ovid wrote the poem “Metamorphoses”, between the years AD 2 and 8.

This was retold in Dante Alighieri´s depiction as the half-spider Arachne in the 2nd book of his “Divine Comedy”, Purgatorio. 

In Ovid’s version, it is clear that Arachne’s problem was one of pride or hubris, an exaggerated belief in one’s own abilities.

Yet, in other versions the theme is more one of Athena’s envy of a mortal whose skills are at least comparable with her own.

Last, but not least, this myth can be interpreted in the light of economic rivalry between the city of Athens and the region of Lydia. Historical and archaeological evidence suggests that, in the second millennium BCE, Lydia was the largest exporter of dyed woolen cloth in the Mediterranean. In this reading of the story, Athena is Athens, while Arachne symbolizes her native Lydia.

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⇒Different Cultural and Philosophical Depictions of Spiders:

In many cultures spiders stand as the creators of our universe and world, and also serve as agents of destruction.The spider has symbolized patience and persistence due to its hunting technique of setting webs and waiting for its prey to become ensnared. It is also a symbol of mischief and malice for its toxic venom and the slow death it causes, which is often seen as a curse.

For example, in ancient India, it is written that a large spider wove the web that is our universe. She sits at the centre of the web, controlling things via the strings. It is said she will one day devour the web/universe, and spin another in its place.

Neith, wears sometimes a shuttle on her head; sometimes a crown.

Neith, wears sometimes a shuttle on her head; sometimes a crown.

Egyptian mythology tells of the goddess Neith – a spinner and weaver of destiny – and associates her with the spider.She is often depicted with a weaving shuttle in her hand, or a bow and arrows, demonstrating her hunting abilities.  

Neith shared same attributes than Athena. She was worshiped as a virgin. She was considered the guardian of marriage and women, and was believed to have created the world and humanity on her loom. The symbol depicted often above her head is argued to either be a weaver’s shuttle or crossed arrows. Before being connected to this means of creation, she was believed to have worked with the primordial waters as the source.

Egyptian goddess Neith reminds of the Greek Moirae

The Three Greek Moirae.

The Three Greek Moirae.

The Moirae were the three white-robed personifications of Destiny: Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. These three Goddesses work successively. Clotho spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle. Lachesis measured the thread of life allotted to each person with her measuring rod. And Atropos was the cutter of the thread of life. 

In Celtic tradition, the spider has strong associations with the Druids. This nature-based religion sees the spider as having three distinct characteristics – the Bard, the Ovate and the Druid. The bard is the artist and weaver of webs. The Ovate is a seer that provides perspective, and the Druid is the teacher of Spider medicine. We are told that Spider created the Ogham, an early Irish alphabet that is often seen on sacred stones in Ireland.

Spider Woman, the "Great Weaver" of Native American myth.

Spider Woman, the “Great Weaver” of Native American myth.

Spider Woman appears in the mythology of several Native North American tribes, including the Navajo, Keresan, and Hopi. In most cases, she is associated with the emergence of life on earth. She helps humans by teaching them survival skills.

Spider Woman also teaches the Navajos the art of weaving.

Before weavers sit down at the loom, they often rub their hands in spider webs to absorb the wisdom and skill of Spider Woman.

Similar to other traditions in the Americas, the Mayan Ixchel was the weaving goddess whose whirling drop spindle controlled the movement of the universe. 

Ixchel, the mayan weaver-goddesses.

Ixchel, the mayan weaver-goddesses.

In some imagery she is shown holding a spindle and distaff, and in some she is kneeling with a small back strap loom tied to a tree, like other weaver-goddesses, weaving the destiny of the world.

Furthermore, an ancient Aztec mural painting of The Great Goddess of Teotihuacan was discovered in the 1940s in Tepantitla, at the site of the pyramids of the Sun and Moon in Mexico. 

Ancient Aztec mural painting of The Great Goddess of Teotihuacan, discovered in the 1940s in Tepantitla. The Goddess seem to be related to The Great Spider mythology.

Ancient Aztec mural painting of The Great Goddess of Teotihuacan. The Goddess seem to be related to The Great Spider mythology.

Until the 1980s, the painting was thought to be of Tlaloc, the Aztec god of rain and water. The details of the painting suggested a feminine form and there were enough similarities to the North American Spider Woman that it was decided that she was another version of the myth.

In the Vedic philosophy of India, the spider is depicted as hiding the ultimate reality with the veils of illusion. The Vedic god Indra is referred to as Śakra in Buddhism, or with the title Devānām Indra. Indra’s net is used as a metaphor for the Buddhist concept of interpenetration, which holds that all phenomena are intimately connected.

In a different and yet resembling level, Information technology terms such as the “web spider” and the World Wide Web imply the spider-like connection of information accessed on the Internet.

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Links Post:
https://goo.gl/WiwbB4
https://goo.gl/mcAiga
https://goo.gl/xW8Y65
https://goo.gl/dddvZx
https://goo.gl/PW18qV
https://goo.gl/49o4Ix

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awards

This is a special section in which I will display all the awards I have received during 2016. To simplify, I will follow the same rules for all the awards as otherwise I wouldn´t be able to do it … 😉 Meaning: 1. Thank the blogger who have nominated you. 2. Display the logo on your blog. 3. Nominate at least 7 bloggers for each award and tell them about the nomination. As I often do, I will nominate bloggers who nominated me for other awards, new followers and bloggers who have recently liked my posts. As to my nominees, I will link back to one of their newest posts as an easier way to inform them about the nomination. If you have been nominated and want to follow along the nomination process, you´ll find your respective award in the gallery below, as the slideshare goes, click on it and save it (see award, per number). If you are a Free Award Blog, all is fine: just take this mention as a shout-out. 😀

1♦Thank you very much Loli Lopesino and Quimoji Blog for bestowing me with the Best Blog Awards.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Settle in El Paso 2. Doar Verde 3. The Dragon Coach 4. Comically Quirky 5. Wystarczyspojrzec 6. Nail a Post 7. Priyadarshinilovelife.

2♦Thank you very much Arohii from Joie de Vivre and Leire from Leire´s Room for the Versatile Blogger Award. 

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Prakharbansal 2. Lola´s Garden 3. Anabarwriter 4. Misty Books 5. Motivepentrucondei 6. Picture this by Frank 7. Versatile Laraib.

3♦Thanks so much Pintowski for the Sunshine Blogger Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. New Pathways 2. Spirit in Politics 3. Your vacation gurus 4. Charly Karl 5. Snapshots233 6. Marswords  7. Mahdheebah.

4♦Thank you very much Claudia Moss for the One Lovely Blog Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Life Less Ordinary 2. The Green Fashion Cafe 3. Claudia Moss 4. Jen Gary New Adventures 5. Breath Math 6. Fotografischewelten 7. Benolsamblog.

5♦Thanks so much Amanpan Blog and Luna Quebrada for thinking of me and bestowing me with the Versatile Blogger Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Der komoediant 2. The Mordant Scribe 3. Elle Jase 4. Len Moriarty 5. West Clare Writes 6. Goingplaces2gether 7. Make-up louca por maquiagem.

6♦Thank you very much Inese from Making Memories for the Creative Blogger Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Loli Lopesino 2. Quimoji Blog 3. Luna Quebrada 4. Amanpan Blog 5. Juggling Writing a Book 6. Heena Rathore 7. Nerdy Teacher Extraordinaire.

7♦Thanks so much Juggling Writing a Book for the Liebster Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Aewnian 2. Scripted Sheet 3. Sometimes Intereseting 4. Simouncino 5. Blog Mexique Rotary 6. Gabriella´s design 7. Mosaic 89.

7´♦ (same logo that ♦4) Thank you very much Tina Frisco for the One Lovely Blog Award. 

My Nominees for this award are: 1. World Of Truths 2. A Voice Reclaimed 3. Carolina Amundsen 4. Dish Dessert 5. Facets of a Muse 6. Whitney Ibe 7. Rdaignault

8♦Thanks so much Micheline Walker and Robert Goldstein for the Blogger Recognition Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Meiji Zapico 2. Il Motivatore 3. Water Wise Baker 4. Boss in the Middle 5. Shell Ochsner 6. Kreakhaos 7. Cocinaitaly

9♦Thank you very much Lazy Haze for the Mystery Blogger Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1.Micheline Walker 2. Tina Frisco 3. Robert Goldstein 4. Danicapiche 5. Kentuchy Angel 6. Dainty Joyce 7. 924 Collective

10♦Thanks so much Danicapiche for the Treasure Trove Award.

My Nominees for this award are: 1. Arohii  2. Leire 3. Inese 4. Healing Grief 5. Justified Ectasy 6. Lazy Haze 7. Oaktreelife.

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11♦ Quote Challenge: Thanks so much to Inese from Making Memories and Heena Rathore for inviting me to join her in the Three Quotes Challenge. The rules of this challenge are: a. Thank the person who nominated you. b. Post one fresh quotation on three consecutive days. c. On each of the three days, nominate at least one  folk to continue the challenge.

Hope you don’t mind that I wrote only one blog post instead of three. Feel free to do the same if you were nominated. I will add the six Quotes (three per each nomination) below photographs I have recently taken in Brazil and Argentina. Click on the photographs to read the respective quote…

I nominate for the Three Quote Challenge: 1. Words from a Little Person 2. Rainefairy 3. Moonlight Psychology 4. Devisecreateconcoct 5. Mararomaro 6. Wutherornot.

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►Greek Mythology: “The Eleusinian Mysteries”:

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"Proserpine" (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

“Proserpine / Persephone” (three-quarter portrait holding a pomegranate), by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1874).-

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The Eleusinian Mysteries are related to a greek religious festival held each year at Eleusis, fourteen miles northwest of Athens. It  was celebrated in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter (whose name means “spelt mother” being “spelt” is a variety of wheat.)

The festivity took place each year, when it was time for the crops to be sown, in the month of Boedromion (September).

It all stems from the myth of Demeter and her daughter Persephone

Demeter was the Greek Goddess of the Harvest, while Persephone was the Goddess of  wheats.

The conflict was originated when Hades, God of the Underworld, abducted Persephone and took her down into the underworld. 

After that, Demeter searched the world looking for her daughter, and while doing this, she neglected her duties and let the earth go barren. 

As she couldn’ t find her, she finally decided to rest by a well in the city of Eleusis. 

There, disguised as an old woman, she cared for the queen’s son, baptizing him nightly in fire so that he would be immortal. 

Demeter later on  taught the queen’s son, who was called Triptolemos, the art of agriculture.

As a reward for having protected the prince Triptolemos, eleusian citizens began to build a temple in their city, as a tribute to Demeter.

Demeter’s attempts to find her daughter were in vain. Besides Demeter’s grief, and plants were dried, the crops died and the earth turn out into something sterile

The gods were worried and Zeus, who had witnessed the abduction, finally intervened. 

He did by persuading his brother, Hades to return Persephone to her mother. Hades agreed but before that he made sure to tricked Persephone into eating some pomegranate seeds and, if one ate in the land of the dead, one remained with the dead. 

As she had only eaten some, however, it was agreed she would spend half the year with Hades in the underworld and half with her mother on earth. 

That’s why while Demeter remained on earth with her mother Demeter, she caused the world to be fruitful while when she was in the underworld with Hades, the plants withered and died; thus the seasons were explained.

Another interesting detail is that when Persephone was abducted by Hades in the underworld, her name was changed to Kore. When she emerged from the underworld she recovered her original name,  Persephone (“she who brings doom”).-

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•The Ceremonies: The Mysteries began with the march of the mystai (initiates) in solemn procession from Athens to Eleusis. The rites that they then performed in the Telesterion, or Hall of Initiation, were and remain a secret. 

Those who were to be initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries had to go through preliminary rites of purification and instruction before they would be allowed to participate in the final revelations at Eleusis. 

 The mysteries were divided into the Lesser and Greater mysteries.  

The Lesser mysteries were preparatory to the Greater, involving purifications and perhaps some instruction or other rites, and they were celebrated near Athens,  in the month of Anthesterion (March).

The initial stages involved physical rites which were preparatory for the spiritual rites at Eleusis  After a series of further ritual actions, the initiate was ready for the myesis, the first level of initiation.

The Greater Mysteries began on 14th Boedromion (September/October), when the “sacred things,” carried in baskets, were brought from Eleusis to Athens by the Eleusinian priestesses escorted by epheboi (young Athenians of military age).  The following day, the hierophant opened the festival, making an announcement (prorrhesis) that those “who are not of pure hands or speak an incomprehensible tongue,” that is, those stained by human blood and non-Greek speaking barbarians, were not permitted to participate.  Other than these exclusions, anyone–including slaves, foreigners, men and women–could participate in the mysteries. A procession, named the Sacred Way , began at Athens on the morning of 19th of Boedromion and ended that evening in Eleusis.

Priestesses brought back the sacred things, with a procession of dancing and chanting initiates, perhaps almost in state of ecstasy

Only the initiates were allowed to proceed further into the cult area, which was dedicated to Hades.  The mysteries took place in the Telestrion, a large building which could hold a few thousand people.  The only ones permitted to enter were the mystai, those entering for the first time, and the epoptai, for whom it would be at least their second experience.

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•Literary Sources and Philosophical Notes:

The mythical basis for many of the mystery rites are accounted for in the “Hymn to Demeter”, which is part of the Homeric Hymns collection of poems

Those ones are thirty-three anonymous ancient greek Hymns celebrating individual gods. The hymns are “Homeric” in the sense that they employ the same epic meter as “the Iliad, use many similar formulas and are couched in the same dialect.

In Plato’s dialogue “The Symposium” he overtly establishes an analogy to the mysteries at Eleusis near the end of Diotima’s speech (as relayed by Socrates), when he has her say that “even you, Socrates, could probably come to be initiated [myētheiēs] into these rites of love [erōtika].  But as for the purpose of these rites when they are done correctly–that is the final and highest mystery” (209e-210a). 

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“Blessed is the mortal on earth who has seen these rites / But the uninitiated who has no share in them never / Has the same lot once dead in the dreary darkness”. (“Hymn To Demeter”. Lines 480/482).-

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 ►Gallery: “The Eleusinian Mysteries, held  in honor of the grain and fertility goddess Demeter”:

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Triptolemos.-

Triptolemos.-

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►Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleusinian_Mysteries
http://www.ancient.eu.com/article/32/
http://www.classics.upenn.edu/myth/php/hymns/index.php?page=eleusis
http://www.theoi.com/Georgikos/EleusiniosTriptolemos.html
http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/O28.2.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/ebm/ebm05.htm#page_31
http://www.lsu.edu/artsci/groups/voegelin/society/2005%20Papers/Steven%20McGuire.shtml

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►Greek Mythology:

“Demeter, Goddess of the Harvest / Persephone, Queen of the Underworld”:

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“Persephone and Demeter Reunite” by Frederic Leighton, (1891).-

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Demeter (Roman equivalent: Ceres) is often described as the greek goddess of the harvest, but she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death.

She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries of the Olympian pantheon.

Demeter’s greatest gifts to humankind were agriculture, particularly of cereals, and the Mysteries which give the initiate higher hopes in this life and the afterlife.

These two gifts were intimately connected in Demeter’s myths and mystery cults. In Homer’s “Odyssey” she is the blond-haired goddess who separates the chaff from the grain. Demeter’s emblem is the poppy.

Demeter’s virgin daughter was called Persephone (Roman equivalent: Proserpine) .

Zeus’s was not only Demeter’s father  but also Persephone, Poseidon and Hades‘ brother.

In one ocassion, Persephone was abducted to the underworld by Hades.

Demeter searched for her for nine days and nights, preoccupied with her loss.

The seasons halted; living things ceased their growth, then began to die. Faced with the extinction of all life on earth, Zeus sent his messenger Hermes  to the underworld to bring Persephone back.

Hades agreed to release her, but gave her a pomegranate. When she ate the pomegranate seeds, she was bound to him for one part of the year, either the dry Mediterranean summer, when plant life is threatened by drought, or the autumn and winter. This myth explains the yearly cycle of growth, harvest, and winter. Persephone is related here to the sprouting seeds of springtime.

After her abduction by Hades she became his wife and Queen of the Underworld, six months of each year. The mint and pomegranate is sacred to her.

Persephone raised Aphrodite’s child Adonis. She was also known as Kore, “the Maiden”.∼

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“The rape of Proserpina” by Hans von Aachen (1586).-

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►Gallery: “Persephone, Demeter and Other Godess of the Underworld”:

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On the left: Greek Goddess Demeter. Roman equivalent: Ceres On The right: Greek Goddess Persephone. Roman equivalent:  Proserpine.-

On the left: Greek Goddess Demeter. Roman equivalent: Ceres
On The right: Greek Goddess Persephone. Roman equivalent: Proserpine.-

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emether, Persephone and Adonis (Aphrodite' son, who was raised by Persephone).-

Demether, Persephone and Adonis (Aphrodite’ son, who was raised by Persephone).-

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►Links Post:

http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/blmythdemeter.htm

 http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/mythpersephone.htm

http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/grecoromanmyth1/g/persephone.htm

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomegranate

http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/demeterceresmyth/a/demeterbrothers.htm

http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Persephone/persephone.html

http://musamolona.com/2015/05/18/persefone-persephone-proserpina/ Retrato por Mus. Enlace Actualizado.

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►Last but not Least: Three Awards: 

I) Mi amiga blogger Bella@Espíritu desde su blog homónimo me ha nominado para un Premio Dardos. Mil Gracias, Bella 😛

►Aquí están las reglas del Premio:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio Dardos en el blog.

2) Nominar a otros quince (15) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

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Premio Dardos.-

Premio Dardos.-

Mis quince (15) nominados para este premio son:

1. Literariedad 2. Cronopia vacía 3. El Mundo de Timeo 4. La gran belleza 5. La piedra translatofal 6. Rafael Carpintero 7. Ivan Ortíz 8. Dinelia 9. Jaque al arte 10. Deimos y Phobos 11. Yakuza Webzine 12. Fiore Rouge 13. Pensamientos complejos 14. Variedad Asimétrica 15. Diario de un  perdedor.

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II) Dinelia from “Palabras sosegadas” nominated for a Versatile Blogger Award. Thanks a lot, Dinelia 😀

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Versatile Blogger Award.-

Versatile Blogger Award.-

And these are my ten (10) nominees for this award:

1. Elizabeth Melton Parsons 2. Inesemjphotography 3. Shehanne Moore 4. Enrico Garrou 5. 6. Teagan’s books 7. Stockreserach52’s blog 8. En Humor Arte 9. Autumn of Life 10. yabakientelbaki

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III) My blogger friend Inese from “Inesemjphotography” nominated for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award. Thank you dear Inese 🙂

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

►My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1. Author Miranda Stone 2. Bella@Espíritu 3. Margaret Lynette Sharp 4. The Journal of Wall Grimm 5. Behind the white coat 6. Life in Kawagoe 7. Espace perso Monick 8. Tales of Love and Life 9. Marie Jeanne 10. Acasadisimi 

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Thanks for dropping by. Best wishes to everyone, Aquileana 😀

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►Mythology:

“Dionysus, Greek God of Wine and Fertility”:

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"The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)" by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

“The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

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Dionysus, also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus and sometimes Liber, appears to be a god who has two distinct origins.

On the one hand, Dionysus was the god of wine, agriculture, and fertility of nature.

On the other hand, Dionysus also represents the outstanding features of mystery religions, such as those practiced at Eleusis: ecstasy, personal delivery from the daily world through physical or spiritual intoxication, and initiation into secret rites. 

He was son of the king of the Greek gods, Zeus, and Semele, the mortal daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia of Thebes. Dionysus is called “twice born” because of the unusual manner in which he grew: not only in a womb, but also in a thigh.

►Dionysus’ Birth:

Hera, queen of the gods, jealous because her husband was playing around (again), took characteristic revenge: She punished the woman. In this case, Semele.

Zeus had visited Semele in human form, but claimed to be a god. Hera persuaded her that she needed more than his word that he was divine. Zeus knew the sight of him in all his splendor would prove fatal, but he had no choice, so he revealed himself. His lightning brightness killed Semele, but first, Zeus took the unborn from her womb and sewed it inside his thigh. There it gestated until it was time for birth.

►Companions of Dionysus:

Dionysus is usually shown in the company of others who are enjoying the fruit of the vine. Silenus or multiple sileni and nymphs engaged in drinking, flute-playing, dancing, or amorous pursuits are the most common companions.  

Depictions of Dionysus may also include Maenads, the human women made mad by the wine god. 

Silenus is a woodland creature from Greek mythology who is part man and part animal, and a companion of Dionysus. He is shown with horse ears and sometimes horse legs and tail.

The Nymphs of Nysa raised the infant Dionysus on Mt. Nysa. Later on, they became his followers. They appear in the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus. Unlike the human Maenads, another group of female followers of Dionysus, the nymphs follow him willingly and without madness. 

He is usually ivy-wreathed and wears a chiton and often an animal skin. Other attributes of Dionysus are wine, vines, ivy, panthers, leopards, and theater.

Writers often contrast Dionysus with his half-brother Apollo. Where Apollo personifies the cerebral aspects of mankind, Dionysus represents the libido and gratification.

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Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

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"The Boy Bacchus" Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus) by  Guido Reni

“The Boy Bacchus” Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus), by Guido Reni.-

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"Bacchus" by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

“Bacchus” by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

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►Links Post:
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/d/dionysus.html 
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html 
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_text_homerhymn_dionysus2.htm
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/dionysusmyth/g/092509NymphsNysa.htm

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 ►Last but not Least: Two Awards:

I) My italian blogger friend Omar from Ramo Di Parole has nominated me for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award. Tante Grazie, caro Omar 😀

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Very Inspiring Blogger Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate fifteen (15) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

►Here are my fifteen (15) nominees for this award:

1. Poet Smith 2. Inese Photo 3. The echo of the whole sea 4.  A window into the woods 5. A journey of faith 6. Pavement stories 7. A pondering mind 8. T Ibara Photo 9. Desirée Jiménez 10. A curious gal 11. Not a Punk Rocker 12. The task at hand 13. Taking one day at a time 14. Wing of dreams 15. Crazy guy in Thailand 

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II) Mi amiga blogger Desirée Jiménez desde Atrevo la Palabra me ha nominado para un Premio Dardos. Mil Gracias, Desirée 😛

►Aquí están las reglas del Premio:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio Dardos en el blog.

2) Nominar a otros quince (15) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

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Premio Dardos.-

Premio Dardos.-

► Mis quince (15) nominados para este premio son:

1. En Humor Arte 2. I lost my lens cap 3.Té con sal 4. A solas con Caronte 5. Sendero blog 6. Bella espíritu 7. Ramo di parole 8. Fábula Gótica 9. Rotze Mardini 10. El tiempo habitado 11. Los sentidos de la vida 12. Arcilla y Fuego 13. Lo que ahora mismo pienso 14. Francisco Javier Tostado 15. Ser nosotros mismos.

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►Greek Mythology:  “Deucalion and Pyrrha, surviving the Flood”:

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"Deucalion and Pyrrha" by  Giovanni Maria Bottalla (1635).-

“Deucalion and Pyrrha” by
Giovanni Maria Bottalla (1635).-

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Deucalion’s parents were Prometheus, the rebel Titan, and Clymene the Oceanid.

Pyrrha’s parents were Epimetheus (Prometheus’ brother) and Pandora.

Deucalion and Pyrrha had been chosen as the gods’ favorite humans, as they were considered the purest ones.

The story of Deucalion and Pyrrha began during the Bronze Age, when humans were violent and loved to kill.

Because of that reason, Zeus planned to destroy them all. Seeing that Deucalion and Phyrra were teh ebst ones, he decide to spare them, so he sent Prometheus to warn them.

Warned by his father, Prometheus, Deucalion built an ark to survive the coming Bronze Age ending flood that Zeus was sending.

Like the version from the Old Testament, in the Greek version, the flood is a mean to punish mankind.

Deucalion and his cousin-wife, Pyrrha survived for nine days of flooding before landing at Mt. Parnassus.

Only Deucalion and Pyrrha survived for nine days of flooding. They mounted a chest and sailed to the dry peaks of Mount Parnassos.

 Other Greek regions also claimed survivors. 

King Dardanos was said to have sought refuge on Mount Ida in the Troad, Kerambos was carried to the heights of Mount Othrys by the Nymphs, Megaros fled to Mount Gerana, Arkas and Nyktimos were preserved on Mount Kyllene in Arkadia, and the tribe of Parnassos fled to the heights above Delphoi. Io  and her son Epaphos, who lived in Egypt, were also preserved.

After the flood,  Deucalion and Pyrrha found that they were all alone in the world and therefore, wanted company.

In answer to this need, the titan and goddess of prophecy Themis  cryptically told them to throw the bones of their mother behind them. They interpreted this as meaning “throw stones over their shoulders onto Mother Earth” and did so. The stones Deucalion threw became men and those Pyrrha threw became women.

Deucalion and Pyrrha settled in Thessaly where they produced offspring the old-fashioned way.

The age that Deucalion and Pyrrha created was called the heroic age. This age included Demi-gods and heroes. 

Their two sons were Hellen and Amphictyon.

Hellen sired Aeolus (founder of the Aeolians), Dorus (founder of the Dorians), and Xuthus.

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"Pyrrha and Deucalion" by  Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1655)

“Pyrrha and Deucalion” by
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1655)

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"Deucalion and Pyrrha Repeople the World by Throwing Stones Behind Them", by Peter Paul Rubens (1636).-

“Deucalion and Pyrrha Repeople the World by Throwing Stones Behind Them”, by Peter Paul Rubens (1636).-

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Deucalion and Phyrra, throwing stones over their shoulders to repeople the world, as Goddess Themis told them, after the Flood.-

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►Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deucalion
http://www.theoi.com/Heros/Deukalion.html
http://sobreleyendas.com/2011/04/11/helen-en-el-origen-de-los-griegos/
http://www.greeka.com/sterea/delphi/delphi-myths/deucalion-pyrrha.htm
https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/01/28/el-diluvio-universal-en-las-tradiciones-mesopotamica-griega-judeo-cristiana-e-hindu/

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 ►Last but not Least: Three Awards:

I) My blogger friend Kev from Kev´s Blog has nominated me for a Bouquet of Awards. I am picking two of these as it is the first time I receive them. Thank you very much, Kev 😛

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Community Heart Award.-

Community Heart Award.-

►Here are my ten (10) nominees for this award:

1) What a wonderful world 2)All about Birds 3) The Passion Dew 4) Bella Espíritu 5) Cinco Máscaras 6) Fábula Gótica 7) ¿Qué me pongo mañana? 8) Petals unfolding 9) Bluebutterfliesandme 10) Ştefania´s

Love and Kindness Award.-

Love and Kindness Award.-

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1) Jet Eliot 2) Word Dreams  3) The Past, Present and Future  4) Share and Connect 5) Natalia Penchas 6) Dante´s Blog 7) Paroleacapo 8) Jardin 9) Crazy Alice in Wonderland 10) The Blue Polar Bear

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II) My blogger friend Agustín from Agustín Ayala nominated me a Versatile Award. I have already received it. However, I will pass it on to some great bloggers here. Muchas Gracias, Agustín 🙂

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Versatile Blogger (Trophee).

Versatile Blogger (Trophee).

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1. Poetic Parfait 2. My World Wall 3. Graffiti Lux and Murals 4. Filamots 5. John Poet Flanagan 6. Das Wesen (T) liche ist nur mit dem Herzen zu Sehen 7. Ray H to the C 8. Stuff Jeff Reads 9. El Cuento Inacabado 10. Otto

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Thank you very much for dropping by!. 

Best wishes to everyone, Aquileana-Amalia 🙂

amalia1123

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►Greek Mythology: “The Golden Apple of Discord” /

►Poetry: “Who is The Fairest?”, by Christy Birmingham:

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

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The Garden of the Hesperides was Hera´s  orchard, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving golden apples grew. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additional safeguard. 

However, in the mythology surrounding “the Judgement of Paris”, the goddess of Discord Eris managed to enter the garden and pluck a golden apple.

Eris had become  disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (Achilles ‘ parents).

Angered by this snub, Eris arrived at the celebration with a golden apple, which she threw into the proceedings, upon which was the inscription Kallisti ( ‘For the most beautiful one’ or ‘For the Fairest’).

Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. Prince Paris of Troy as appointed to select the recipient. 

While Paris inspected them, each attempted with her powers to bribe him; Hera offered to make him king of Europe and Asia, Athena offered wisdom and skill in war, and Aphrodite, offered the world’s most beautiful woman.

This was Helen of Sparta, wife of the Greek king Menelaus. Paris accepted Aphrodite’s gift and awarded the apple to her.

Later on, he abducted her, all of Greece declared war against Troy, causing the Trojan War and the eventual destruction of Troy. 

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

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►A Poem By Christy Birmingham: “Who is the Fairest?”

(Based on the Greek Myth of “The Golden Apple of Discord”): 

If I transported back to mythical times,

Would I be the fairest?

Would I be the one to snatch the

Apple first, savoring the

Fruit, eyes and delight of all?

 

If so, I would stand above Athena, Hera and

Aphrodite, in this beauty contest that

Judges only our outer skin, revealing nothing of

Our spirits, as though denying us the

Opportunity to reveal our sweet, fruity tastes.

 

If I transported back to mythical times,

I wonder if I would also bribe Paris to win –

And what would I offer as the winning power?

Would it be savory or sweet?

 

Indeed, the golden apple caused quite the uproar,

An apple of discord not to be forgotten,

And I only hope that my winning power is

One day revealed,

As it is a blend unlike any other:

 

It is the ability to connect with you.

 

 ©2014 Christy Birmingham.-

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The poem “Who is the Fairest?” was originally written by Christy Birmingham as a recreation of the Greek myth related to the Judgement of Paris and the Golden Apple of Discord.

►About Christy Birmingham:

Christy is a freelance writer, poet and author. She lives in British Columbia, Canada. 

She writes poetry and short stories to motivate readers and to reach out to struggling women. Her intent is to spread hope and understanding about depression, abuse and other issues.

Christy has written countless poems since childhood. She is the author of the poetry collection “Pathways to Illumination” (2013), available exclusively at Redmund Productions.

You can check out Christy Birmingham´s writer portfolio here

She also hosts two great blogs: Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire.  (You can also check out this post at Poetic Parfait: here).

Feel free to connect with Christy on social media at Twitter and Google Plus .

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"The Golden Apple of Discord", labelled Kallisti ("For the Most Beautiful One").-

“The Golden Apple of Discord”, labelled Kallisti (“For the Fairest” / “For the Most Beautiful One” ).-

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►Paintings : “The Judgement of Paris”:

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This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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►Links post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_(symbolism)
http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Fruit-in-Mythology.html
http://www.spiffy-entertainment.com/applediscord.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesperides
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5452761_paris-golden-apple-greek-myth.html
http://poeticparfait.com/about/

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►Greek Mythology:

“Atalanta, Hippomenes,  a Footrace and Three Golden Apples”:

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"The Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes" by Nicolas Colombel (1680).-

“The Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes” by Nicolas Colombel (1680).-

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Atalanta was a great Arkadian huntress and a favourite of the goddess Artemis. Shewas exposed by her father in the wilderness at birth, but was suckled by a she-bear and afterwards found and raised by hunters.

She swore to the goddess to defend her virginity and, when Centaurs burst into her grove, destroyed them with her arrows.

Later she participated in the voyage of the Argonauts, and defeated the hero Peleus in wrestling at the funeral games of King Pelias.

When Meleagros gathered heroes to destroy the Kalydonian Boar, Atalanta joined the hunt and was the first to draw blood.

Meleagros awarded her the prize of the skin, and when his uncles tried to take it from her force, he slew them.

After the Calydonian boar hunt, Atalanta was rediscovered by her father. He wanted her to be married, but Atalanta, uninterested in marriage, agreed to marry only if her suitors could outrun her in a footrace. Those who lost would be killed. King Schoeneus agreed, and many young men died in the attempt until Hippomenes came along.

Hippomenes asked the goddess Aphrodite for help, and she gave him three golden apples in order to slow Atalanta down. 

Aphrodite gave him three golden apples – which came rom the Garden of the Hesperides, according to Servius – and told him to drop them one at a time to distract Atalanta. 

These golden apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia  gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus.

The golden apples were irresistible, so every time Atalanta got ahead of Hippomenes, he rolled an apple ahead of her, and she would run after it. In this way, Hippomenes won the footrace and came to marry Atalanta. Eventually they had a son Parthenopaios.

Zeus or his mother  Rhea  turned Atalanta and Hippomenes into lions after they made love together in one of his temples.

Other accounts say that Aphrodite changed them into lions because they did not give her proper honor.

The belief at the time was that lions could not mate with their own species, only with leopards; thus Atalanta and Hippomenes would never be able to remain with one another.

►Symbolism and other facts: The Greek word χρυσομηλιά, and Latin “pomum aurantium” both literally describe oranges as “golden apples”.

The unnamed fruit of the Garden of Eden became an apple under the influence of the story of the golden apples  in the Garden of the Hesperides.

As a result, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, inmortality, temptation, sin and the fall of man. Secular art as well made use of the apple as symbol of love and sexuality. 

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"Atlanta and Hippomenes" by Willem van Herp (1632).-

“Atlanta and Hippomenes” by Willem van Herp (1632).-

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►”Three Greek Myths related to Golden Apples”:

1) “Atalanta and Hippomenes´Footrace”, 2) “The Garden of Hesperides and Heracles´Eleventh Labor”, 3) “The Judgement of Paris”:

1) Goddess Aphrodite gave Hippomenes three golden apple which he used to beat Atalanta in the footrace, as he rolled them ahead of her while she was running. Hippomenes was also known as Melanion, a name possibly derived from “melon” the Greek word for both “apple” and fruit in general.

2) Heracles´Eleventh Labor was to retrieve the Golden Apples from The Garden of the Hesperides. First, he flattered the Hesperides, but they didn’t give him the apples. Then he found Atlas and convinced him to give him the sky for a little so Atlas went to see his daughters and they gave him a golden apple. Then Atlas gave the apple to Hercules).

3) The chain of events that started the Trojan War all began with a spiteful goddess and a simple appleZeus was putting together a wedding banquet for Peleus and Thetis. He planned to invite just about everyone. Everyone except Eris.

However, Eris arrived at the celebration with a golden apple from the Garden of the Hesperides, which she threw into the proceedings, upon which was the inscription καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, “For the most beautiful one”). Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

Zeus declared that Paris of Troy would decide who deserved the apple. Paris chose Aphrodite’s offer, so she got the apple and Paris was given Helen, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta. Paris abducted her and took her to Troy.

The Greeks’ expedition to retrieve Helen from Paris in Troy is the mythological basis of the Trojan War.

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►Slideshare: “Who was Atlanta?”:

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Click above to watch it.-

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►”Read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story on “The Metamorphoses” by Ovid”:

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Click on teh Image aboev to read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story (Book X  verses 560 to 680).-

Click on the Image above to read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story (Ovid´s “Metamorphoses”. Book X Verses 560 to 680).-

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►Links Post:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atalanta

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippomenes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_(symbolism)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_apple#Oranges

http://www.pbase.com/dlcmh/c01_thethreegoldenapples

http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/JudgementParis.html

http://camphalfblood.wikia.com/wiki/The_Garden_of_the_Hesperides

https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/greek-mythology-agamemnons-family-and-the-war-of-troy/

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►Last but not Least: ”Three Awards”:

I have been nominated for three Awards.

I) My dear blogger friend Sue Dreamwalker nominated me for an “Angel Award”. Check out her brilliant  site and the nomination both here. Thanks a bunch, Sue 

II) Cool blogger Deimos and Phobos has kindly nominated for the ” Black Wolf Blogger Award”. You can check out nomination and great blog here. Thank you very much.

III) I have been nominated for an Versatile Bloger Award (Trophee Version) coming from Between Sky and Earth. As I already had this award I changed its feature… Check the nomination and the sparkling blog here. Thank You.

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) Bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Angel Award

Angel Award.-

►Here are my ten (10) nominees for this award:

1) Aisha´s Oasis 2)  The Tropical Flowering Zone 3) Clanmother 4) Kittykatmandoo 5) The dune mouse (CybeleMoon) 6) Tarot Psychologique 7) Wendy Mac Donald 8) Delvina Lavoie 9) En Humor Arte 10) Rotze Mardini.

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Black Wolf Blogger Award.-

Black Wolf Blogger Award.-

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1) Sue Dreamwalker 2) I lost my lens cap 3) Kev´s blog 4) Chesterton´s Blog 5) Sweet as a picture 6) Marina Kanavaki 7) Inesemjphotography 8)  Between Sky and Earth 9) Todo el Oro del Mundo 10) Dina´s Illustrations.

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Versatile Blogger (Trophee).

Versatile Blogger (Trophee).-

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1) Jeri Walker-Bickett 2) Eternal Atlantis  3) Apollo´s Raven 4) Agustín Ayala 5) Speedy Rabbit 6)  Talker Blogger 7) Deimos and Phobos 8) Poesiaincodice 9) Mario Aguirre 10) Nature Restores Me.

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