Posts Tagged ‘“Ética a Nicómaco”’

♠Aristotle´s “Nicomachean Ethics” and “Politics”:

“On The Concept of Justice”:

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In Book V of “Nichomachean Ethics”, Aristotle attempted to apply his theory of the mean to define justice.

In this sense, he dissects justice into its smallest components, causing him to postulate three kinds, from two main types.

There are two distinct forms of justice: Universal and Particular.

1) Universal Justice is concerned with obeying laws and with virtue as a whole. (Type: c) Equitable Justice).

2) Particular Justice is seen as one of the virtues and is divided into two types (Types a) Distributive Justice and b) Corrective or Rectificatory Justice)

a) Distributive Justice, which involves distributing honors, money and other assets; and b) Corrective or Rectificatory Justice; which includes: voluntary transactions involving paying debts, buying and selling, and so on; and involuntary transactions involving the giving of just restitution of harms inflicted.  

The Distributive justice reflects our understanding of justice as the mean between two extremes of unfairness. Everyone agrees that justice involves the distribution of things in proportion to merit. The man who acts unjustly gets too much, the victim too little, of what is good. Therefore that which is unjust in the narrow sense defies the proper “geometrical” proportion. 

As for Corrective or Rectificatory Justice, this shows our belief that in any exchange the just is what is fair. Unlike distributive justice, it involves not “geometrical,” but “arithmetical” proportionality, because it doesn’t take into account the parties involved, just the transaction itself. Both parties are treated as equals before the law in the exchange of goods, regardless of their individual merits. The role of the judge, therefore, is to restore the mean between too much and too little: to remedy an inequitable division between two parties by means of some sort o f arithmetical progression. He tries to equalize the inequality of the injustice. 

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The Doctrine Of The Mean is related to justice as a mean between two extremes, (vices), deficiency, and excess, or gain and loss.  It is important to stress here that Aristotle intends to define justice as a determinable mean between excesses which he presumes are vices.  

Justice is the intermediate position between doing injustice and suffering it; one has more, the other less, than their share. It is that state of virtue in which the individual is capable of doing just acts from choice and of distributing property, not in a way which gives himself more than his neighbour, but to each in proportionately equal manner. Injustice is choosing excess or deficiency in defiance of proportion. 

c) Equitable Justice is that kind of Universal Justice that Aristotle postulated as being a form of justice superior to legal justice.  Realizing that the “generality” of the law sometimes gave rise to injustices, Aristotle postulated equity, which was to function, though the judge, as a “correction of the law where it is defective owing to its universality”While all laws are stated universally, in some cases such a universal statement is not correct. The law thus states most is mostly right, and in cases where the statement does not apply correctly it is just for the legislator or the judge to correct for the deficiency of the law, as long as what is done is in accordance with the intention of the lawmaker, even if it conflicts with the exact statement. 

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►Comparative Graphic: Distributive Justice and Rectificatory or Corrective Justice (Types of Particular Justice):

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Aristotle also developed the idea of Justice in the Book III (chapter 12) of “Politics”

There he helds that “The political good is justice, and this is the common advantage”. Justice is considered to be a certain sort of equality, but what remains to be determined is what sort of equality and equality in what things. Persons preeminent in some things may not be preeminent in others, and some things are more of claim to honor and merit than others. 

Aristotle says “The virtue of justice is a feature of a state; for justice is the arrangement of the political association, an a sense of justice decides what is just”.

For him, Justice means giving equal measures to equals and unequal measures to unequals. Aristotle realizes that people are bad judges concerning themselves and that as in oligarchy and democracy they tend to confuse a part of justice with the whole of justice. Justice must be central concern for every city, because the city exists “not only for the sake of living but primarily for the sake of living well.” As a result, “virtue must be a care for every city,” and a city can only foster virtue to the extent that it is just.

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►Video: “On Aristotle´s Idea of Justice and The Theory of Golden Mean”:

Click on the image above to watch the video at YouTube.-

Click on the image above to watch the video at YouTube.-

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►”Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle:

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Click on the image above to read the book.-

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►”Politics” by Aristotle:

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Click on the image above to read the book.-

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♠Links Post:
http://mysite.verizon.net/vzepglv8/file22b.html
 http://www.novelguide.com/aristotles-ethics/summaries/book5
  http://www.gradesaver.com/aristotles-ethics/study-guide/section5/
  http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~cp28/justice.htm 
http://www.gradesaver.com/aristotles-politics/study-guide/section3/

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♠Aristotle´s Nichomachean Ethics: “Three Types of Friendship”

(Based on Utility, Pleasure and Goodness):

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In Book VIII of “The Nichomachean Ethics”, Aristotle makes reference to three kinds of friendship.

1) The first is friendship based on utility, where both people derive some benefit from each other.

Aristotle describes a friendship of utility as shallow, “easily dissolved” or for the old. He views them as such because this type of friendship is easily broken and based on something that is brought to the relationship by the other person. Aristotle uses the example of trade and argues that friendships of utility are often between opposite people, in order to maximize this trade

2) The second is friendship based on pleasure, where both people are drawn to the other’s wit, good looks, or other pleasant qualities. Aristotle says that riendship of pleasure is normally built between the young as passions and pleasures are great influences in their lives. This type of relationship is characterized by such feelings as passion between lovers, or the feeling of belonging among a likeminded group of friends. It differs from the friendship of utility in that those who seek utility friendships are looking for a business deal or a long term benefit, whereas the friendship of pleasure Aristotle describes is where one seeks something which is pleasant to them presently.

The first two kinds of friendship are only accidental, because in these cases friends are motivated by their own utility and pleasure, not by anything essential to the nature of the friend. Both of these kinds of friendship are short-lived because one’s needs and pleasures are apt to change over time.

3) The third is friendship based on goodness, where both people admire the other’s goodness and help one another strive for goodness.

Friendships of the good are ones where both friends enjoy each other’s characters. Aristotle calls it a “…complete sort of friendship between people who are good and alike in virtue…” This is the highest level of Philia,(φιλία), often translated “brotherly love”, and one of the highest forms of Love in Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics”.

Aristotle (384 BC / 322 BC).-

Aristotle (384 BC / 322 BC).-

Those involved in friendship of the good must be able to value loving over being loved and as such, their relationship will be based more around loving the other person and wanting what is good for them.  Goodness is an enduring quality, so friendships based on goodness tend to be long lasting.

This friendship encompasses the other two, as good friends are useful to one another and please one another. Such friendship is rare and takes time to develop, but it is the best.

As well, Aristotle believes that it is through friendship that cities are held together. Those with the moral virtue to enter virtuous relationships are a major part of this but friendships of utility and pleasure are also needed as friendships of virtue are severely limited in number It is the friendships of utility and pleasure that keep the city together. however; it takes the character of those in the virtuous friendship for a solid community to exist.

Aristotle states in Book VIII, Chapter 1: “Between friends there is no need for justice, but people who are just still need the quality of friendship; and indeed friendliness is considered to be justice in the fullest sense. It is not only a necessary thing but a splendid one”. Aristotle bases his conception of justice on a conception of fair exchange, and does the same for friendship. Friendships are balanced by the fact that each friend gives as much as receives. Hence, justice and friendship are closely connected.

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♠Read The Nichomachean Ethics By Aristotle (Complete Text):

 Click on the image above to read "The Nichomachean Ethics", by Aristotle.-


Click on the image above to read “The Nichomachean Ethics”, by Aristotle.-

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♠Index of Contents: Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics”:

Click above for further details.-

Click above for more details on Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics” .-

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♠Links Post:
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.8.viii.html
http://www.gradesaver.com/aristotles-ethics/study-guide/section8/
http://cantory.blogspot.com.ar/2007/12/aristotle-and-his-view-of-friendship.html

http://izquotes.com/author/aristotle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philia
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_words_for_love
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♠Last but not least: The Versatile Blogger Award:

Thanks Salvela for nominating me for this great award. Gracias por la nominación, Salvela.-

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The Rules of the Award:

1. Display the award logo on your blog /Ubicar el logo del premio en el blog
2. Link back to the person who nominated you/ Enlazar a la persona que te ha nominado.
3. State 7 things about yourself/ Numerar 7 cosas sobre tí.
4. Nominate 15 (more or less) other bloggers for this award and link to them/ Nominar a 15 otros bloggers y enlazarlos
5. Notify those bloggers of the nomination and the award requirements/ Notificar a los nominados de la nominación y de las reglas.

My Nominees Are / Mis nominados son: 1) English Through ICT. 2)The Regular Guy NYC. 3) Blue Fish Way. 4) English with a Twist. 5) Geografía Subjetiva. 6) Reconstructing Christina. 7) Ajaytao 2010. 8) Plato´s Symposium. 9) Philosopher mouse of the Hedge. 10) Tom Gething Re Reading. 11) Keith Garrett Poetry. 12) John Coyote. 13) Magnificum Sanctórum. 14) Authentic Teaching. 15) Anatomía de la Intimidad.

If you don´t want to get awards over your blog, you can take it as a little gesture of recognition for your great job as a blogger. Thanks and keep it up / Si no quieres premios en tu blog, puedes tomar la nominación como un gesto de reconocimiento por tu excelente labor como Blogger. Sigue así. Aquileana 🙂

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