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Posts Tagged ‘Eleusinian Mysteries’

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"The Tree of Forgiveness." by Edward Burne-Jones. 19th century.

“The Tree of Forgiveness.” by Edward Burne-Jones. 19th century.

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⇒“Metamorphoses” by Ovid:

"Metamorphoses" by Ovid. Illustration by George Sandys. 1632.

“Metamorphoses” by Ovid. Illustration by George Sandys. 1632.

In my previous post, I have mentioned Ovid´s book “Metamorphoses” as a key source of Greek Mythology. 

“Metamorphoses” is a narrative poem in fifteen books by the Roman poet Ovid, completed in 8 CE.

It is a “mock-epic” poem, written in dactylic hexameter, the form of the great epic poems of the ancient tradition, such as “The Iliad” and  “The Odyssey.

This poem describes the creation and history of the world, incorporating many classical myths.

Love and hubris are main topics in Ovid´s “Metamorphoses”. 
Unlike the predominantly romantic notions of Love, Ovid considered love more as a dangerous, destabilizing force.
However, there is an explanation for this attitude: during the reign of Augustus, the Roman emperor during Ovid’s time, major attempts were made to regulate morality by creating legal and illegal forms of love, by encouraging marriage and legitimate heirs, and by punishing adultery with exile from Rome.
As to hubris, (overly prideful behaviour) Ovid emphasizes that it entails a fatal flaw which inevitably leads to a character’s downfall. Hubris always attracts the punishment of the gods, as human beings might attempt to compare themselves to divinity.
As a side note, I think the best example of hubris in a Greek Myth is the one featuring Icarus, whose father built two pairs of wings out of wax and feathers for them to escape from the Labyrinth for King Minos in which they had been imprisoned, and which had a fearsome Minotaur as guardian. Daedalus (Icarus´father) tried his wings first, but before taking off from the island, warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, nor too close to the sea, but to follow his path of flight. But soon later, Icarus was so overcome by the incredible feeling of flight, that he tried to fly higher and higher, trying to reach the sun; until, inevitably his wax wings melted, he fell from the sky into the Sea, and died.

Besides, in my last post, I introduced the subject of metamorphoses as it appears in Greek Myths, stating that it is generally defined as the origin of one or more transformations which most times occur as a result of death (tribute), but also as a way exoneration; or punishment.

Ovid. Publius Ovidius Naso. ( 43 B.C/ 17 A.D).

Ovid. Publius Ovidius Naso. ( 43 B.C/ 17 A.D).

Transformation is a common theme in Greek mythology. The gods had the power to change themselves into animals, birds, or humans and often used this power to trick goddesses or women.
In this same sense, I have previously mentioned the case of Zeus, the Ruler of Gods, who took different appearances as a way of courting potential lovers. Furthermore, sometimes the gods and goddesses transformed “others”, either to save them or to punish them.
Daphne, for example, was changed into a laurel tree; whilst Narcissus and Hyacinthus became the flowers that bear their names. 
The metamorphoses I have previously considered involved exclusively flowers, plants and trees and this post intends to present a few more examples of this sort.
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  ⇒“Flowers and Plants in some Greek Myths II”:

►Minthe: A naiad, fond of Hades/ Mint Plant:

Minthe was a naiad or water nymph associated with the Underworld river Cocytus. This river (also known as the River of Wailing) was one of the five rivers that encircled the realm of Hades, alongside rivers Phlegethon, Acheron, Lethe and Styx- .

Minthe fell in love with Hades, but Persephone, Hades’ wife became enraged with jealousy, turning Minthe into a crawling plant so Persephone could crush her.

Hades could not reverse the spell so he made Minthe smell good when she walked on, making it so Minthe would always be noticed and never be taken for granted. 

The story also makes sense in a Greco-Roman context as mint was used in funerary rites to disguise the scent of decay. Besides, in Greece, the herb was also a main ingredient in the fermented barley drink called kykeon, which seemingly was the principal potable associated with the Eleusinian mysteries. It seems like this beverage included some really strange psychoactive ingredients, mint among them.

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On the Left: Nymph Minthe by W. Szczepanska. 21st century. On the Right: Mint Plant.

On the Left: Nymph Minthe by W. Szczepanska. 21st century. On the Right: Mint Plant.

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►Crocus, friend of Hermes/Crocus Plant:

Crocus was a friend of Hermes, the messenger of the Gods and god of travellers, liars, thieves, all who cross boundaries.

One day, while they were throwing the disc to each other, Hermes hit Crocus on the head and wounded him fatally.

As the young man collapsed and was dying, three drops from his blood fell on the centre of a flower thus becoming the three stigmata of the flower named after him.

Etymologically, the word crocus has its origin from the Greek “kroki” which means weft, the thread used for weaving on a loom. 

As a medicinal and dyeing substance, crocus has been known in ancient Greece for its aroma, vibrant colour and aphrodisiac properties, thus making it one of the most desired and expensive spices.

Another use in ancient Greece was that of perfumery also using it to perfume the water while bathing. Frescoes in the palaces of Knossos (16th century b.C.) clearly depict a young girl gathering crocus flowers as well as in the archeological site of Akrotiri, in Santorini and Homer, in his writings calls dawn “a crocus veil”.

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On the Left: "Mercury (Hermes)” Statue at the Museum Pio Clementino, Vatican. On the Right: Crocus Flower.

On the Left: “Mercury (Hermes)” Statue at the Museum Pio Clementino, Vatican. On the Right: Crocus Flower.

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►Paean, Asclepius´pupil/ Peony, Plant of Healing:

Peony was named after Paean, who was the physician of the gods who healed, among others, Hades’ and Ares’ wounds.

The flower myth related, says that Paean was a student of Asclepius, the god of medicine and healing

Asclepius excelled as a doctor, partly because serpents helped him to discover the healing properties of certain herbs.

Unfortunately, Asclepius became so skilled that he was able to revive the dead. Angry that the son of Apollo had interfered with nature and human mortality, Zeus hurled a thunderbolt at Asclepius, killing him. However, while they understood that interfering with natural death was wrong, humans continued to worship Asclepius as the founder of medicine.

Back to Asclepius´pupil, Paean, he was once instructed by Leto (Apollo‘s mother and goddess of fertility) to obtain a magical root growing on Mount Olympus that would soothe the pain of women in childbirth.

Asclepius became jealous and threatened to kill his pupil. Zeus saved Paean from the wrath of Asclepius by turning him into the peony flower. 

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On the Left: Statuette of Paeon . 2nd century. On the Right: Peony, flower.

On the Left: Statuette of Paean . 2nd century. On the Right: Peony, flower.

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►Cyparissus/ Cypress tree:

Cyparissus was a handsome young man from the island of Kea, the son of Telefus and grand son of Hercules.

He was god Apollo‘s protege as well as of god Zephiros (god of the wind). He asked the heavens for a favour; that his tears would roll down eternally. The favorite companion of Cyparissus was a tamed stag, which he accidentally killed with his hunting javelin as it lay sleeping in the woods. The gods turned him into a cypress tree, whose sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk. Therefore, the cypress tree became the tree of sorrow, and a classical symbol of mourning.

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On the Left: "Cyparissus" (mourning his deer) by Jacopo Vignali. 1670. On the Right: Bald Cypress Leaves.

On the Left: “Cyparissus” (mourning his deer) by Jacopo Vignali. 1670. On the Right: Bald Cypress Leaves.

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►Phyllis, Demophon´s wife/Almond Tree:

Phyllis was a daughter of a Thracian king.

She married Demophon, King of Athens and son of Theseus, while he stopped in Thrace on his journey home from the Trojan War.

Demophon, duty bound to Greece, returns home to help his father, leaving Phyllis behind. She sends him away with a casket, telling him that it contained a sacrament of Rhea and asking him to open it only if he has given up hope of returning to her. From here, the story diverges. In one version, Phyllis realizes that he will not return and commits suicide by hanging herself from a tree. Where she is buried, an almond tree grows, which blossoms when Demophon returns to he

A daughter of king Sithon, in Thrace, fell in love with Demophon on his return from Troy to Greece. Demophon promised her, by a certain day, to come back from Athens and marry her, and as he was prevented from keeping his word, Phyllis hung herself, but was metamorphosed into an almond-tree, which is a symbol of hope and rebirth.

In my previous post, I also made reference to another myth featuring an almond tree, which I will summarize here again.

This myth involved Cybele, his son Agdistis and his grandson Attis.

Medallion depicting Cybele and the sun god in the sky looking on as she rides in her chariot. 2nd century BC

Medallion depicting Cybele and Helios, the sun god in the sky looking from above as she rides in her chariot. 2nd century BC

Cybele (the so called “Great Mother”) gave birth to the hermaphroditic demon Agdistis.

Afraid of such creature, Cybele cut off his male sexual organ and from its blood sprang an almond tree.

When its fruit was ripe, Nana, who was a daughter of the river-god Sangarius, picked an almond and laid it in her bosom.

The almond disappeared, and she became pregnant.

Soon after the baby (named Attis) was born, Nana abandoned him, but a couple took care of him. 

When he was a young man, the foster parents of Attis sent him to Pessinos, where he was to wed the king’s daughter. 

Just as the marriage had started, Cybele appeared in her transcendent power, as she was jealous because she had fallen in love with Attis (his grandson).

Attis went mad, cut off his genitals and died. From Attis’ blood sprang the first violets.

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On the Left: "Phyllis and Demophoön" by John William Waterhouse. 19th century. On the Right: Almond Trees.

On the Left: “Phyllis and Demophon” by John William Waterhouse. 19th century. On the Right: Almond Trees.

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►The Nymph Pitys/The Fir tree:
Pan, the god of the wild and shepherds, was in love with the nymph Pitys. The god of the North wind was also attracted to Pity, but the nymph chose Pan over him.
The North Wind wanted to take revenge so he blew her over a gorge and killed her.
Pan found her lifeless body laying in the gorge and turned her into sacred tree, the Fir-tree.
Ever since, every time the North wind blows, Pitys cries. Her tears are the pitch droplets that leak out of the fir-cones in autumn.
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On the Left: "Pan and Pitys" by Edward Calvert. 1850. On the Right: Fir Trees.

On the Left: “Pan and Pitys” by Edward Calvert. 1850. On the Right: Fir Trees.

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►Rose, created by the goddess of flowers, Chloris, from a dead Nymph:

"Flora and Zephy" by Bouguereau. 1875.

“Flora and Zephy” by Bouguereau. 1875.

In Greek mythology, the rose was created by the goddess of flowers, Chloris (Roman equivalent: Flora).

One day, Chloris found the lifeless body of a nymph in the forest and she turned her into a flower.

She called Aphrodite, goddess of love, and Dionysus, the god of wine.

Aphrodite gave the flower beauty as her gift and Dionysus added nectar to give it a sweet fragrance. Zephiros, god of the West Wind, blew the clouds away so Apollo, the sun-god, could shine and make the flower bloom. That is how the rose was created and rightfully crowned “Queen of Flowers”.

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On the Left: Chloris. Detail "Primavera" by Sandro Botticelli.1478. On the Right: Rose Flower.

On the Left: Chloris. Detail “Primavera” by Sandro Botticelli.1478. On the Right: Rose Flower.

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►Orchis (son of a nymph and a satyr)/Orchid Plant:

In Greek mythology, Orchis was the son of a nymph (a female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform) and a satyr (a rustic fertility spirits of the countryside and wilds).

During a celebratory feast for Dionysus, Orchis committed the sacrilege of attempting to rape a priestess.

His punishment was to being torn apart by wild beasts. From his death arose Orchids which are a testament to the male reproductive organs (the testis). Today, the orchid means refinement as well as beauty. The origin of the plant name comes from the word orkhis, a word to describe part of the male genitalia, because of the shape of the bulbous roots. 

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On the Left: Fight between Nymph and Satyr. Naples National Archaeological Museum. On the Right: Orchid Plant and flowers.

On the Left: Fight between Nymph and Satyr. Naples National Archaeological Museum. On the Right: Orchid Plant and flowers.

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Flowers and Plants

Flowers and Plants: Peony, Rose, Orchid, Cypress (Leaves), Crocus, Mint (Leaves), Almond Tree (Flowers), Fir Tree (Branch).

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►Links Post:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus_(mythology)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyparissus
http://amphipolis.gr/en/fyllis/
http://www.valentine.gr/mythology5_en.php
http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Paion.html
http://www.mythindex.com/greek-mythology/P/Phyllis.html
http://www.ancient-literature.com/rome_ovid_metamorphoses.html
https://tropicalfloweringzone.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/dendrobiums-orchids/
http://www.dominiquehackettchc.com/mint-wonderful-go-to-herb/
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►Greek Mythology: “Eros, God of Love and Son of Goddess Aphrodite”:

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"Red-Figure Plate with Eros" by Ascoli Satriano (Dated 340-320 BC). Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

“Red-Figure Plate with Eros” by Ascoli Satriano (Dated 340-320 BC). Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

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Eros was the Greek God of Love. His roman equivalent was Cupid.

In Hesiod’ s “Theogony” he is represented as a cosmic force which emerged self-born at the beginning of time to spur procreation.

Hesiod was making reference to the Protogenos (primordial deity) of procreation who emerged self-formed at the beginning of time. He was the driving force behind the generation of new life in the early cosmos.

According to Hesiod, Eros was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos, Gaia and Tartarus  (the Abyss or the Underworld).

The Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries featured Eros as an original God, but not quite primordial, since he was one of the sons of Nyx.

The Orphics knew him as Phanes, a primal being hatched from the World Egg at creation. 

Hesiod also describes two love-gods, Eros and Himeros (Desire), accompanying Aphrodite at her birth from the sea-foam.

This second and later sense is related to Younger Eros, a boy-god armed with bow and arrows.

A minion who, according to Ovid, was son of Aphrodite, the Greek Goddess of Beauty and Ares, the Greek God of War, whose love affair represented an allegory of Love and War.

Anteros was also the son of Ares and Aphrodite and therefore Eros’ brother.

Eros and Anteros were related to the notion of “Love returned”. But, originally, Anteros was a being opposed to Eros, and fighting against him. This conflict, however, was also conceived as the rivalry existing between two lovers, and Anteros accordingly punished those who did not return the love of others

Anteros, with Eros, was one of a host of winged love gods called Erotes, the ever-youthful winged gods of love, usually depicted as winged boys in the company of Aphrodite or her attendant goddesses.

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"Venus and Cupid" by Lambert Sustris (1560).  In this painting, Venus (Aphrodite) is stroking some doves (her attributes) in the presence of her son Cupid (Eros) as she awaits his lover Mars (or Ares in the background, right) who is on his way to join her.

“Venus and Cupid” by Lambert Sustris (1560). In this painting, Venus (Aphrodite) is stroking some doves (her attributes) in the presence of her son Cupid (Eros) as she awaits his lover Mars (or Ares in the background, right) who is on his way to join her.

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"Allegory with Venus, Mars, Cupid and Time". by Guercino (1625). In this painting, winged Time points an accusing finger at baby Cupid, (Eros) held in a net that evokes the snare in which Venus (Aphrodite) and Mars (Ares) were caught by her betrayed husband Vulcan (hephasitos)

“Allegory with Venus, Mars, Cupid and Time”. by Guercino (1625). In this painting, winged Time points an accusing finger at baby Cupid, (Eros) held in a net that evokes the snare in which Venus (Aphrodite) and Mars (Ares) were caught by her betrayed husband Vulcan (hephasitos)

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"Eros et Anteros" (ou "Deux Amours qui se battent") by  Alessandro Algardi. 17th century.

“Eros et Anteros” (ou “Deux Amours qui se battent”) by Alessandro Algardi. 17th century.

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►Eros, Greek God of Love: Attributes and Themes:

•Eros (Or Cupid), The Honey Thief: In “Idylls” of Theocritus (3rd century BC), the poet tells the tale of Cupid the honey thief, the child-god is stung by bees when he steals honey from their hive. He cries and runs to his mother, who laughs, and tells him that he also delivers the sting of love.

•Eros and the Dolphin: In later art, Eros is often shown riding a dolphin. This may be a symbol representing how swiftly love moves.

•Eros, the Blinfolded Minion: In the later satirical poets, he is represented as a blindfolded child, and this is a symbol of Love being blinkered and arbitrary.

•Eros, the winged boy: He is also described a winged boy. This may suggest that lovers are flighty and likely to change their minds. He is just a boy, because love is irrational.

•Eros’ symbols: The Arrow and the Torch: His symbols are the arrow and torch, because love is said to wound and inflame the heart”. 

According to Ovid, Cupid carries two kinds of arrows, one with a sharp golden point, and the other with a blunt tip of lead.

A person wounded by the golden arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire, but the one struck by the lead feels aversion and desires only to flee.

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"Cupid, the Honey Thief" by Albrecht Dürer (

“Cupid, the Honey Thief” by Albrecht Dürer (1514).

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by Lucas Cranach the Elder (

“Cupid (Eros) complaining to Venus (Aphrodite)” by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1525).

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"Cupid riding a Dolphin" by Peter Paul Rubens (

“Cupid riding a Dolphin” by Peter Paul Rubens (1636).

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Mosaic: "Eros riding a dolphin". Imperial Roman. (1st- 2nd Century). Eros rides across the sea on the back of a dolphin. He holds a whip in one hand, and a pair of reins in the other.

Mosaic: “Eros riding a dolphin”. Imperial Roman. (1st- 2nd Century). Eros rides across the sea on the back of a dolphin. He holds a whip in one hand, and a pair of reins in the other.

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"Blindfolded, armed Cupid" by Piero della Francesca (1452/66).

“Blindfolded, armed Cupid” by Piero della Francesca (1452/66).

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►Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_primordial_deities 
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/e/eros.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eros
 http://www.wga.hu/html_m/r/rubens/7graphic/14sketch.html
 http://gogreece.about.com/od/greekmythology/a/eros.htm 
http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Eros.html
http://mythologie-laverite.jimdo.com/ant%C3%A9ros/
http://hubpages.com/hub/Aphrodite-Goddess-of-Love

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►Greek Mythology: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

 guarda_griega1_2Cortege Dionysus

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Dionysus is best known in Greek mythology as the god of wine, but he has also been associated with peace, agriculture, law, civilization, and most especially, the theatre. In Thrace he was known as Eleutherios, “the Liberator,” or Liber Pater, “the Free One,” because he freed people through drunken ectasy

The place of origin of the Hellenic Dionysian Mysteries is unknown, but they almost certainly first came to Greece with the importation of wine, which is widely believed to have originated, in the West, around 6000 BC in one of two places, either in the Zagros Mountains (the borderlands of Mesopotamia and Persia, both with their own rich wine culture since then) or from the ancient wild vines on the mountain slopes of Libya / North Africa (the source of early Egyptian wine from around 2500 BC, and home of many ecstatic rites), quite probably from both

Wine probably also entered Greece over land from Asia Minor. But it was most likely in Minoan Crete that the eclectic ‘wine cult’, that would become the Dionysian Mysteries, first emerged

The basic principle beneath the original initiations, other than the seasonal death-rebirth theme supposedly common to all vegetation cults (such as the Osirian, which closely parallels the Dionysian), was one of spirit possession and atavism. This in turn was closely associated with the effects of the wine. The spirit possession involved the invocation of spirits by means of the bull roarer, followed by communal dancing to drum and pipe, with characteristic movements (such as the backward head flick) found in all trance inducing cults.

Unlike many trance cults however, the Dionysian rites were primarily atavistic, that is the participant was possessed by animal spirits and bestial entities, rather than intelligible divinities, and may even “transform into animals”. A practise preserved by the riteof the “goat and panther men” of the “heretical” Aissaoua Sufi cult of North Africa, and remembered in the satyrs and sileni of the Dionysian procession, and perhaps even the “bull man”, or Minotaur, of the chthonic Minoan labyrinth.

The purpose of this atavism is controversial, some see it simply as a Greek saturnalian catharsis, a ritualised release of repressed elements of civilised psychology, and temporary inversion, in order to preserve it, others see it as a return to the “chaotic” sources of being and essentially a reaction against civilisation, while yet others regard it as a magical connection with chthonic powers

In the late 1800s A.D., the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche elaborated the dichotomy Apollonian- Dionysian in his book “The Birth of Tragedy”, arguing that the Apollonian principal corresponded to the principium individuationis, the principal of individualization, a concept coined by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. This is because rational thought defines and thus compartmentalizes forms into different structures.

Nietzsche rather identified with the Dionysian principal that corresponded to Schopenhauer’s conception of Will, the principal of submerging oneself into a greater whole. Music, drunkenness, dancing, and madness were considered Dionysian characteristics because they apply to the instinctive, chaotic, and ecstatic side of the human mind. 

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“The Initiation Chamber”. Villa of The Mysteries. Pompeii. (79 CE).-

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►”Dyonisiac Frieze, Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii” (In English):

►”Pompeii: Villa dei Misteri” (In Italian):

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•Further Information: “The Villa of the Mysteries” or “Villa dei Misteri” is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 400 metres northwest of Pompeii, southern Italy.

The Villa is named for the paintings in one room of the residence. This space is decorated with very fine frescoes, dated 79 B.C. Although the actual subject of the frescoes is hotly debated, the most common interpretation of the images is scenes of the initiation of a woman into a special cult of Dionysus, mystery cult  hat required specific rites and rituals to become a member.

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►Gallery: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
http://www.lost-history.com/mysteries.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_of_the_Mysteries
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dionysiac-frieze-villa-of-the-mysteries.html
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►Greek Mythology:

“Demeter, Goddess of the Harvest / Persephone, Queen of the Underworld”:

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“Persephone and Demeter Reunite” by Frederic Leighton, (1891).-

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Demeter (Roman equivalent: Ceres) is often described as the greek goddess of the harvest, but she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death.

She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries of the Olympian pantheon.

Demeter’s greatest gifts to humankind were agriculture, particularly of cereals, and the Mysteries which give the initiate higher hopes in this life and the afterlife.

These two gifts were intimately connected in Demeter’s myths and mystery cults. In Homer’s “Odyssey” she is the blond-haired goddess who separates the chaff from the grain. Demeter’s emblem is the poppy.

Demeter’s virgin daughter was called Persephone (Roman equivalent: Proserpine) .

Zeus’s was not only Demeter’s father  but also Persephone, Poseidon and Hades‘ brother.

In one ocassion, Persephone was abducted to the underworld by Hades.

Demeter searched for her for nine days and nights, preoccupied with her loss.

The seasons halted; living things ceased their growth, then began to die. Faced with the extinction of all life on earth, Zeus sent his messenger Hermes  to the underworld to bring Persephone back.

Hades agreed to release her, but gave her a pomegranate. When she ate the pomegranate seeds, she was bound to him for one part of the year, either the dry Mediterranean summer, when plant life is threatened by drought, or the autumn and winter. This myth explains the yearly cycle of growth, harvest, and winter. Persephone is related here to the sprouting seeds of springtime.

After her abduction by Hades she became his wife and Queen of the Underworld, six months of each year. The mint and pomegranate is sacred to her.

Persephone raised Aphrodite’s child Adonis. She was also known as Kore, “the Maiden”.∼

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“The rape of Proserpina” by Hans von Aachen (1586).-

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►Gallery: “Persephone, Demeter and Other Godess of the Underworld”:

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On the left: Greek Goddess Demeter. Roman equivalent: Ceres On The right: Greek Goddess Persephone. Roman equivalent:  Proserpine.-

On the left: Greek Goddess Demeter. Roman equivalent: Ceres
On The right: Greek Goddess Persephone. Roman equivalent: Proserpine.-

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emether, Persephone and Adonis (Aphrodite' son, who was raised by Persephone).-

Demether, Persephone and Adonis (Aphrodite’ son, who was raised by Persephone).-

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►Links Post:

http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/blmythdemeter.htm

 http://gogreece.about.com/cs/mythology/a/mythpersephone.htm

http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/grecoromanmyth1/g/persephone.htm

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomegranate

http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/demeterceresmyth/a/demeterbrothers.htm

http://www.greekmythology.com/Other_Gods/Persephone/persephone.html

http://musamolona.com/2015/05/18/persefone-persephone-proserpina/ Retrato por Mus. Enlace Actualizado.

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►Last but not Least: Three Awards: 

I) Mi amiga blogger Bella@Espíritu desde su blog homónimo me ha nominado para un Premio Dardos. Mil Gracias, Bella 😛

►Aquí están las reglas del Premio:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio Dardos en el blog.

2) Nominar a otros quince (15) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

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Premio Dardos.-

Premio Dardos.-

Mis quince (15) nominados para este premio son:

1. Literariedad 2. Cronopia vacía 3. El Mundo de Timeo 4. La gran belleza 5. La piedra translatofal 6. Rafael Carpintero 7. Ivan Ortíz 8. Dinelia 9. Jaque al arte 10. Deimos y Phobos 11. Yakuza Webzine 12. Fiore Rouge 13. Pensamientos complejos 14. Variedad Asimétrica 15. Diario de un  perdedor.

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II) Dinelia from “Palabras sosegadas” nominated for a Versatile Blogger Award. Thanks a lot, Dinelia 😀

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Versatile Blogger Award.-

Versatile Blogger Award.-

And these are my ten (10) nominees for this award:

1. Elizabeth Melton Parsons 2. Inesemjphotography 3. Shehanne Moore 4. Enrico Garrou 5. 6. Teagan’s books 7. Stockreserach52’s blog 8. En Humor Arte 9. Autumn of Life 10. yabakientelbaki

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III) My blogger friend Inese from “Inesemjphotography” nominated for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award. Thank you dear Inese 🙂

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

►My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1. Author Miranda Stone 2. Bella@Espíritu 3. Margaret Lynette Sharp 4. The Journal of Wall Grimm 5. Behind the white coat 6. Life in Kawagoe 7. Espace perso Monick 8. Tales of Love and Life 9. Marie Jeanne 10. Acasadisimi 

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Thanks for dropping by. Best wishes to everyone, Aquileana 😀

thankyou

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►Mythology:

“Dionysus, Greek God of Wine and Fertility”:

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"The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)" by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

“The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

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Dionysus, also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus and sometimes Liber, appears to be a god who has two distinct origins.

On the one hand, Dionysus was the god of wine, agriculture, and fertility of nature.

On the other hand, Dionysus also represents the outstanding features of mystery religions, such as those practiced at Eleusis: ecstasy, personal delivery from the daily world through physical or spiritual intoxication, and initiation into secret rites. 

He was son of the king of the Greek gods, Zeus, and Semele, the mortal daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia of Thebes. Dionysus is called “twice born” because of the unusual manner in which he grew: not only in a womb, but also in a thigh.

►Dionysus’ Birth:

Hera, queen of the gods, jealous because her husband was playing around (again), took characteristic revenge: She punished the woman. In this case, Semele.

Zeus had visited Semele in human form, but claimed to be a god. Hera persuaded her that she needed more than his word that he was divine. Zeus knew the sight of him in all his splendor would prove fatal, but he had no choice, so he revealed himself. His lightning brightness killed Semele, but first, Zeus took the unborn from her womb and sewed it inside his thigh. There it gestated until it was time for birth.

►Companions of Dionysus:

Dionysus is usually shown in the company of others who are enjoying the fruit of the vine. Silenus or multiple sileni and nymphs engaged in drinking, flute-playing, dancing, or amorous pursuits are the most common companions.  

Depictions of Dionysus may also include Maenads, the human women made mad by the wine god. 

Silenus is a woodland creature from Greek mythology who is part man and part animal, and a companion of Dionysus. He is shown with horse ears and sometimes horse legs and tail.

The Nymphs of Nysa raised the infant Dionysus on Mt. Nysa. Later on, they became his followers. They appear in the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus. Unlike the human Maenads, another group of female followers of Dionysus, the nymphs follow him willingly and without madness. 

He is usually ivy-wreathed and wears a chiton and often an animal skin. Other attributes of Dionysus are wine, vines, ivy, panthers, leopards, and theater.

Writers often contrast Dionysus with his half-brother Apollo. Where Apollo personifies the cerebral aspects of mankind, Dionysus represents the libido and gratification.

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Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

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"The Boy Bacchus" Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus) by  Guido Reni

“The Boy Bacchus” Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus), by Guido Reni.-

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"Bacchus" by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

“Bacchus” by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

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►Links Post:
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/d/dionysus.html 
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html 
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_text_homerhymn_dionysus2.htm
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/dionysusmyth/g/092509NymphsNysa.htm

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 ►Last but not Least: Two Awards:

I) My italian blogger friend Omar from Ramo Di Parole has nominated me for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award. Tante Grazie, caro Omar 😀

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Very Inspiring Blogger Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate fifteen (15) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

►Here are my fifteen (15) nominees for this award:

1. Poet Smith 2. Inese Photo 3. The echo of the whole sea 4.  A window into the woods 5. A journey of faith 6. Pavement stories 7. A pondering mind 8. T Ibara Photo 9. Desirée Jiménez 10. A curious gal 11. Not a Punk Rocker 12. The task at hand 13. Taking one day at a time 14. Wing of dreams 15. Crazy guy in Thailand 

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II) Mi amiga blogger Desirée Jiménez desde Atrevo la Palabra me ha nominado para un Premio Dardos. Mil Gracias, Desirée 😛

►Aquí están las reglas del Premio:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio Dardos en el blog.

2) Nominar a otros quince (15) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

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Premio Dardos.-

Premio Dardos.-

► Mis quince (15) nominados para este premio son:

1. En Humor Arte 2. I lost my lens cap 3.Té con sal 4. A solas con Caronte 5. Sendero blog 6. Bella espíritu 7. Ramo di parole 8. Fábula Gótica 9. Rotze Mardini 10. El tiempo habitado 11. Los sentidos de la vida 12. Arcilla y Fuego 13. Lo que ahora mismo pienso 14. Francisco Javier Tostado 15. Ser nosotros mismos.

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