Posts Tagged ‘dianoia’

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Aristotle 1

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I.♠Introduction:

In my previous post, I made reference to the Muses

tragedy and comedyBack to the most common typology, I found interesting that Tragedy and Comedy were represented among the Nine Muses. I am specifically pointing out to Melpomene and ThaliaMelpomene was the muse of Tragedy and her symbol was the tragic mask. On the other hand, Thalia was the muse of Comedy while her symbol was the comic mask.

Furthermore, as I read about them, I couldn´t avoid thinking of the well known symbol of the two masks, depicting Tragedy and Comedy.

→Now, let´s see which were the masks´purposes when it comes to The Ancient Greek drama.

The Ancient Greek term for a mask is Prosopon (literally meaning,”face”).

The classical masks had an important function in plays of tragedies and comedies as they were able to create a sense of dread in the audience creating large scale panic, since they had intensely exaggerated facial features and expressions. They also enabled an actor to appear and reappear in several different roles, in addition to revealing a change in a particular character’s appearance. Finally, they facilitated the playing of women’s roles by men, as women were not allowed to perform Greek dramas.

As to the costumes, actors who played tragic roles wore boots called Cothurneses, that elevated them above other actors. When playing female roles, the male actors wore a Prosterneda which was a wooden structure infront of the chest to imitate breasts.

Common clothes were the Chiton and the Hemateon. The Chiton was made of linen or silk and it was worn long. The Hemateon was an exterior cloth, made of wool, which was worn over the shoulders.

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Greek Sculptures. On the Left: Thalia, Muse of Comedy. On the Right: Melpomene, Muse of Tragedy.

Greek Sculptures, 500 BCE approx. On the Left: Thalia, Muse of Comedy. On the Right: Melpomene, Muse of Tragedy.

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Greek Masks. (Late 500 BC),

Greek Masks. (Late 500 BC),

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On the Left: Greek theatre at Ephesus (now in Turkey). Built in the 10th century BC. On the Right: Ancient Greek theatre of Epidauros.Date of Construction: ca. 300-340 BC.

On the Left: Greek theatre at Ephesus (now in Turkey). Built in the 10th century BC. On the Right: Ancient Greek theatre of Epidauros. Date of Construction: ca. 300-340 BC.

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→Before getting to the specific subject of this post (Aristotle´s theory of Tragedy as shown in his book “Poetics”), I would like to overall present the main differences between Tragedy and Comedy.

•By and large, we can say that a Comedy is a story that illustrates idiosyncrasies of ordinary people, has a happy ending where protagonist achieves his goal at the end.

The word “comedy” in Ancient Greek, means “village revel”. It is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία, kōmōidía, which is a compound either of kômos (revel) or κώμη (village) and ᾠδή (singing).

The Greeks confined their use of the word “Comedy” to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average.

The most famous ancient greek playwrights of the genre Comedy were: Aristophanes, Menander and Philemon.

•In general terms, a Tragedy is a story with a sad  ending. A tragedy always deals with an extraordinary person who is led to downfall through his own weakness. Besides, a successful tragedy may have the ability to evoke pity and fear in the audience.

Ancient Greek tragedy was a popular and influential form of drama performed in theatres across ancient Greece from the late 6th century BCE. According to Aristotle, tragedy evolved from the satyr dithyramb, an Ancient Greek hymn, which was sung along with dancing in honor of Dionysus. 

The most famous ancient greek playwrights of the genre Tragedy were: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides and many of their works were still performed centuries after their initial premiere.

For a more detailed comparison between Tragedy and Comedy, I suggest you to read this list by John Morreall, which  thoroughly presents their prototypical characteristics, while comparing these genres as well.

Also, you can read more about Greek Theatres, staging and Structure of Comedy and Tragedy in the gallery below.

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Gallery: Ancient Greek Theatres. Staging. Comedy and Tragedy (Characteristics ):

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II.♠Aristotle’s “Poetics”: “Theory of Tragedy”:

•Tragedy. Definition and Aim:

Aristotle thoroughly analyzes the subject of Tragedy in Poetics. Section 1. Part VI.

He says: “Tragedy, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its Catharsis of such emotions. . . . 

To Aristotle, Tragedy is the “imitation of an action” (mimesis) according to a certain “law of probability or necessity”.

The end of the tragedy is a Catharsis (purgation, cleansing) of the tragic emotions of pity and fear.

•The three Unities of Tragic Drama:

According to Aristotle these are the unities of time, place and action.
1→Unity of action: the play should have one main action that it follows, with no or few subplots.
2→Unity of place: the play should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography, nor should the stage represent more than one place.
3→Unity of time: the action in a play should take place over no more than  twenty-four (24)hours.

•The Six Parts of Tragedy:

Aristotles held that every Tragedy must have six parts, namely, Plot, Character. Thought, Diction, Spectacle, Song or Melody.

1→Plot (mythos): It refers to the structure of the incidents.  According to Aristotle `Dramatic action is not with a view to the representation of character… character comes in as subsidiary to the actions´. 

The plot must be “a whole,” with a beginning, middle, and end. The beginning (Protasis) is called by modern critics the incentive moment. The middle or climax  (Epitasis) must be caused by earlier incidents and itself cause the incidents that follow it. The end, or resolution (Catastrophe) must be caused by the preceding events and should therefore solvethe problem created during the incentive moment. The end  comprises events from the end of the falling action to the actual ending scene of the drama or narrative. Conflicts are resolved, creating normality for the characters and a sense of catharsis, or release of tension and anxiety, for the reader. 

2→Character (Ethos): The characters are the agents mainly with a view to the action, as Tragedy is defined as he imitation of an action.

In a tipical Tragedy, the protagonist should be renowned and prosperous, so his change of fortune can be from good to bad. This change “should come about as the result, not of vice, but of some great error or frailty in a character.” Such a plot is most likely to generate pity and fear in the audience, for “pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves.” The term Aristotle uses here, Hamartia, often translated “tragic flaw”.

In the ideal tragedy, claims Aristotle, the protagonist will mistakenly bring about his own downfall—not because he is sinful or morally weak, but because he does not know enough. The role of the Hamartia (tragic flaw) in tragedy comes not from its moral status but from the inevitability of its consequences. 

In this way, the Peripeteia, meaning a “reversal of intention” entrains a crucial action from/on the protagonis that changes the situation, from seemingly secure to vulnerable. This leads to results diametrically opposed to those that were intended (often termed tragic irony), and the Anagnorisis, which means “recognition” and leads to the gaining of the essential knowledge that was previously lacking

3→Thought (Dianoia): It is, the faculty of `saying´what is possible and pertinent in given circumstances. Thought, on the other hand, is found where something is proved to be or not to be, or a general maxim is enunciated. 

4→Diction (Lexis): It refers to the quality of speech in tragedy. Speeches should reflect character, the moral qualities of those on the stage. The expression of the meaning of the words.

5→Spectacle (Opsis): It is related to the representation and actors. Spectacle, for Aristotle, is what happens to the text of a play when it is performed. It is created by the actors and “stage machinist” who through their work give physical form and expression to the words of the poet. It is what an audience sees and hears when they witness the performance of a play.

6→Song or Melody (Melos): It holds the chief place among the embellishments. It is is the musical element of the chorus. Aristotle argues that the Chorus should be fully integrated into the play like an actor. It should be an integral part of the whole, and share in the action.

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Tragedy, according to Aristotle. Summary of Terms in Greek.

Tragedy. Terms in Greek.

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Freytag´s Triangle on the Plot Structure of the Tragedy.

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Links Post:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_of_ancient_Greece
http://pediaa.com/difference-between-comedy-and-tragedy/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetics_(Aristotle)
https://greektheatre.wordpress.com/home/
https://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/ephesus/commentary/Ephesus.commentary.htm
http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/aristotle/section11.rhtml
https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/03/13/platos-ion-and-aristotles-poetics-on-the-concepts-of-mimesis-and-catharsis/
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/a/agamemnon-the-choephori-and-the-eumenides/critical-essay/aristotle-on-tragedy
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Two Quote Challenges and Several Awards:

►Quote Challenge: “Memory”, as a atribute to Mnemosyne and “Inspiration”, as tribute to The Muses:

Inese, from Making Memories, firstly and then Heena, from Heena Rathore P. have nominated me for a so called 3-Day Quote Challenge.

I had already joined this challenge once, with regard to the subject of Beauty, and was invited by Paul in that occasion.

I thought in that moment that it would be a good idea to take the challenge in order to illustrate the subject of that particular post, from a different perspective, of course… 

Hence I will do the same now. I will use as a pretext my posts on Mnemosyne, in which Resa McConaghy and Christy Birmingham took part and my post on The Muses, which include a poem by Eva Xanthopoulos.

Lastly, I will add photographs from my Instagram account, alongside the quotes, as I had previously done the first time I was nominated to join this Challenge.

The rules of this challenge are: ♠Post your favorite quotes or your own quotes for three (3) posts in a row. ♠Thank the person who nominated, by linking to the blog. ♠Pass it on to three (3) other bloggers per quote, each time you post them. Or pass it to nine (9) bloggers per challenge if you choose to post all the quotes together, in the same post.
⚠ Note: I will post the six (6) quotes together. Three for each of the two (2) Challenges I was invited to. Thus I will nominate eighteen (18) Bloggers. 

If you have been nominated for a Challenge, and decide to keep it up -no pressure, just If you want, of course- then, you will only have to choose three (3) bloggers per quote, meaning nine (9) bloggers in total.

You can decide whether to post the three (3) quotes altogether hitting two targets with one shot. Or you can post one quote at a time. That´s up to you.

Also, you can choose whichever subject fits you and you may you present the Quote Challenge however you want. You can go for any of the topics I have used as well (i.e Beauty, Memory-remembrances, or Inspiration).

So, well then, without further ado, my nominees for the Quotes Challenges are: 1. Arresting Imagery 2. Coffee Fuels my Photography 3. Tails Around the Ranch 4. Living the Dream 5. While there is life, there is hope 6. D.G.Kaye Writer  7. Have We Had Help? 8. Ted Giffin 9. Lens and Pens by Sally 10. The Muscleheaded Blog 11. Ringana- Paterakis 12. Georges 2679 13. 14. Les rêves d’Eugénie 15. Qhapaq 16. Living with my Ancestors 17. T Ibara Photo 18. The Bonny Blog.

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► Three Quotes and photographs on Memory-Remembrances, as a tribute to Goddess Mnemosyne:

~ Click on the images to read ~

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►Three Quotes and pics on Inspiration, as tribute to The Nine Muses:

~ Click on the images to read ~

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⭐ Last but not Least: “Several Awards” ⭐

I am quite behind with awards and challenges… I was going to make this blog an `award free blog´, but I have always liked to receive awards and enjoyed passing them to other bloggers… Besides, there is something about the gesture of giving itself which I believe is clearly intertwined with process of recognizing or being recognized.

I will keep it up with awards and similar stuff. But I just run off time at times in order to post, visit blogs and reply to comments here. Hence, when it comes to the amount of bloggers to nominate and the rules to follow, I might take certain licenses, usually nominating less bloggers than required. I might as well homogenize rules for all the awards and change their logos as well.

I really can not otherwise, not only because of lack of time but mostly because I find hard to nominate as many bloggers as sometimes is stipulated. 

Thanks for reading my attempt of `disclaimer´…  And thanks so much to all the Bloggers who have nominated me for different awards, which I will make reference to below.

I suggest you to check out these blogs and follow them, if you haven’t still done so…

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•Rules for all these Awards.

♠Thank the person who nominated you. ♠Add the logo to your post. ♠Nominate five (5) to ten (10) bloggers of your choice and tell them about the nomination. 

1.Best Blogger Award: Nominated by Loli Lopesino from “Comienzo de Cero”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Shehanne Moore b. Course of Mirrors c. Making Memories d. An Unexpected Life Chosen. e. Eva Marks

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2.Best Blogger Award: Nomination coming from “Quimoji”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Heena Rathore P.  b. Debi Riley c. Smile Calm. d. Kate McClelland e. Sacred Touches.

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3.Versatile Blogger Award: Nominated by Leire from Leire´s “Room”.

Nominees for this Award: a. A Russian Affair b. Inside The Life of Moi c. Pisces Rising d. Made of Sticks and Stones e. The Hardest Science.

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4. Sunshine Blogger Award: Nomination coming from “Pintowski’s Blog”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. An Unexpected Muse b. Anna Belfrage c. The Coastal Crone. d. Geokult Travel e. From Bluerock.

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5.Blogger Recognition Award: Nominated by “Robert M. Goldstein”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Eva Poetex. b. Between Two Tides. c. Quimoji d. Luna Quebrada e. Sarah

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6.One Lovely Blog Award: Nominated by “Claudia Moss”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. D. Wallace Peach. b. House of Hearts. c. Comienzo de Cero d. Leire´s Room e. Cecile´s Writers.

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7.Liebster Award: Nominated by “Sarah”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Almeno Tu b. Between Scarlett & Guest c. Pintowski’s Blog d. BrewNSpew eRobert M. Goldstein

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8.Versatile Blogger Award: Nomination coming from “BrewNSpew”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Millie Thom b. Jilanne Hoffmann c. “Claudia Moss” d. Carly Watters e. No Wasted Ink

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9.Versatile Blogger Award: Nomination coming from “Luna Quebrada”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Sloppy Buddhist b. The Half- Eaten Mind c. A Wing and Away. d. Loujen Haxm’Yor e. Create Art Everyday.

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10.Blogger Recognition Award: Nomination coming from “The Half- Eaten Mind”.-

Nominees for this Award: a. Reality through Fiction b. Quando la mente si Sveste c. Stealing Quiet Time In Noisy Disorder d. Inspiration Import e. Oana Roses.

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11.  One Lovely Blog Award coming from “Stealing Quiet Time In Noisy Disorder.-

Nominees for this Award: a.The Little Mermaid b. Araoimi c. Dolls Global d. Kyrosmagica e. Becoming Cliche.

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•Note:

-If you have been nominated and want to follow the Nomination Process, just look for the award down here, in the slideshare. Once you did, click on it and save it. 

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