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athena

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"Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom and Knowledge"  by Willem De Poorter. (17th century).

“Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom and Knowledge” by Willem De Poorter. (17th century).

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Athena (Roman Equivalent: Minerva) was the city protectress of Athens and goddess of war, handicraft, wisdom and practical reason.

She was the daughter of Zeus and Metis, but she was born produced without a mother, so that she emerged full-grown from his forehead. The story of Athena’s birth is perfectly told in the post “The Weirdest Births of Mythology”~ Micromythos. It is said that while Metis was pregnant, Zeus ate the fetus following Uranos’ and Gea’s advice, who told him that if a boy was born, he would snatch his father’s power. The fetus was then carried in Zeus’ skull during nine months. After that time, the god had a terrible headache and ask the blacksmith god Hephaestus to split his head with an axe in order to relieve him from his pain. Then Athena, already as a young girl came out of his head, completely dressed and armed.

Her emergence there as city goddess, accompanied the ancient city-state’s transition from monarchy to democracy. Her birth and her contest with Poseidon, the sea god, in which the Gods disputed which of them should give the name to the capital of Attica, were depicted on the pediments of the Parthenon,and the great festival of the Panathenaea.

She was also part of the Judgement of Paris, in which she competed with Hera and Aphrodite for the prize of the Golden Apple.

Athena was essentially urban and civilized, the antithesis in many respects of Artemis, goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation. She was usually portrayed wearing body armour and a helmet and carrying a shield and a lance.

Besides, she was said to be the creator of the olive tree, the greatest blessing of Attica.

She was associated with birds, particularly the owl, which became famous as the city’s own symbol, and with the snake. 

In Homer’s “Iliad”, Zeus, assigned the sphere of war to Ares and Athena. 

Athena’s moral and military superiority to Ares derived in part from the fact that she represented the intellectual and civilized side of war and the virtues of justice and skill, whereas Ares represented mere blood lust. 

Athena thus appears here as war goddess, who fights alongside the Greek heroes. She is the divine form of the heroic, martial ideal: she personified excellence in close combat, victory, and glory.

Athena also appears in Homer’s “Odyssey”, representing the tutelary deity of Odysseus.

Athena also has am important role in Aeschylus’ tragedy “The Eumenides” (third and last part of Aeschylus’ “Oresteia”). There, Orestes is judged by a jury composed of Athena and twelve Athenians. After being counted, the votes on each side are equal. Athena declares that tied juries will result in the defendant (Orestes) being acquitted as mercy should always take precedence over harshness.

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“Pallas and the Vices” (Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue), by Andrea Mantegna (1502).

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"Pallas and the Vices"(Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue), by Andrea Mantegna (1502). Right side: Detail  Athena, trying to Expel the creatures who represent the many vices from the Garden of Virtue and To rescue the “Mother of the Virtues” from her stone prison (to the far right of the painting, a detail of which can be seen below). -

“Pallas and the Vices”(Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue), by Andrea Mantegna (1502). Right side: Detail Athena, trying to Expel the creatures who represent the many vices from the Garden of Virtue and To rescue the “Mother of the Virtues” from her stone prison (to the far right of the painting, a detail of which can be seen below). -

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The fluttering banner proclaims the following in Latin: ET MIHI MATER VIRTUTUM SUCCURRITE DIVI Gods, save me too, the Mother of the Virtues

“Pallas and the Vices” (Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue), by Andrea Mantegna (1502). Right side, details: The fluttering banner proclaims the following in Latin: ET MIHI MATER VIRTUTUM SUCCURRITE DIVI: Gods, save me too, the Mother of the Virtues.

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Homeric Hymn 11 to Athena. (Greek Epic C7th to 4th B.C.) :
“Of Pallas Athena, guardian of the city, I begin to sing. Dread is she, and with Ares she loves the deeds of war, the sack of cities and the shouting and the battle. It is she who saves the people as they go to war and come back. Hail, goddess, and give us good fortune and happiness!”~

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►Gallery:  “Athena, Goddess of Wisdom” (Sculptures):

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Up right: "Man in Armour" or "Alexander the Great" by Rembrandt (1655). Up Left: "Minerva or Pallas Athena" by Rembrandt (1655).

Up left: “Man in Armour” or “Alexander the Great” by Rembrandt (1655). Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow. Up down: “Minerva or Pallas Athena” by Rembrandt. Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon. (1655).

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"The Combat of Mars and Minerva" by  Jacques Louis David (1711).

“The Combat of Mars and Minerva” by Jacques Louis David (1711).

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"The Combat of Mars and Minerva" by  Suvée Joseph-Benoit (1771).

“The Combat of Mars and Minerva” by Suvée Joseph-Benoit (1771).

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►A Poem by LadySighs: “Greek Goddess ~ Athena”:

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"Greek Goddess ~ Athena". Poem by LadySighs. Click above.

“Greek Goddess ~ Athena”. Poem by LadySighs. Click above. Source: https://ladysighs.wordpress.com/2015/02/03/greek-goddess-athena/

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Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Athena.html
https://micromythos.wordpress.com/2015/02/01/the-weirdest-births-of-mythology/
https://ladysighs.wordpress.com/2015/02/03/greek-goddess-athena/
http://www.everypainterpaintshimself.com/article/rembrandts_minerva_c.1655
http://wtfarthistory.com/post/8130067131/virtue-over-vice
http://bloomlisa.com/2015/01/28/give-me-a-hoot-hoot-for-the-owl/

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I would like to thank Bella Espíritu, for nominating me for a Mental Paradise Award Blog Friends Awards.

I also want to thank Risty for confering me a Very Inspiring Blogger Award (Blossom Version).

Finally, I want to say thanks to Sadness Theory for nominating me for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award (Fancy Version).

Thanks to these three bloggers and please make sure to check out their blogs and to follow them, If you haven’t still done so!.~

Note: In this ocassion and for the three awards, I will nominate blogs I have recently came across and like, recent followers and plussers. Also,  I will follow the nomination process without answering questions or mentioning facts about me…. 

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►Rules for these Three Awards:

* Thank the person who nominated you for the award.
* Add the logo to your post.
* Nominate ten (10) bloggers you admire and inform your nominees by commenting on their blogs. 

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►I) Nominees~Mental Paradise Award Blog Friends Awards~

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1. Micromythos 2. Hello World 3. Bloom Lisa 4. Being Better 5. View from a Burrow 6. Arthur Penn 7. PictureS 8. M. Jean Pike’s Weblog 9. Difference Propre 10. The Ninth Life.

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►II) Nominees~ Very Inspiring Blogger Award (Blossom Version)~

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very-inspiring-blogger-award Blossoms

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1. Just Fooling Around With Bee 2. Ladyleemanila 3. Rareity 4. Sadness Theory 5. Find Your Middle Ground 6. Catherinejonapark 7. Creati-Tude 8. Festival Reviews 9. If It Was Today 10. The Alarm Clock of Love.

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►III) Nominees~Very Inspiring Blogger Award (Fancy Version)~

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1. Bella Espíritu 2. Simona Prilogan 3. Risty’s Breath 4. Ruth Williams’ Blog 5. Working Girl Reviews 6. Life in the Foothills  7. Au fil-M-des Mots 8. Quebec1spire 9. L’envolée poétique 10. Le Blabla de l’ Espace.

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►I am Saying Hi & Bye!~

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►Greek Mythology: “Poseidon, The God of Sea”:

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"Neptune and Triton" by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1620-1622). Victoria and Albert Museum of London.

“Neptune and Triton” by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1620-1622). Victoria and Albert Museum of London.

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Poseidon (Roman equivalent: Neptune), was a son of Cronos and Rhea and brother of Zeus, Hades, Hera, Hestia and Demeter.

Poseidon was the god of the sea, rivers, flood and drought, earthquakes, and horses.

Being the ruler of the sea, he was described as gathering clouds and calling forth storms, but at the same he has it in his power to grant a successful voyage and save those who are in danger.

He was further regarded as the creator of the horse, and was accordingly believed to have taught men the art of managing horses by the bridle, and to have been the originator and protector of horse races.

The common tradition about Poseidon creating the horse states that when Poseidon and Athena disputed as to which of them should give the name to the capital of Attica, the gods decided, that it should receive its name from him who should bestow upon man the most useful gift.

Poseidon their created the horse, and Athena called forth the olive tree, for which the honour was conferred upon her.

Homer says in the “Odyssey” that the palace of Poseidon was in the depth of the sea near Aegae in Euboea.

The symbol of Poseidon’s power was the trident, or a spear with three points, with which he used to shatter rocks, to call forth or subdue storms.

He was depicted as a mature man of sturdy build with a dark beard, and holding a trident. 

He was also represented on horseback, or riding in a chariot drawn by two or four horses.

Poseidon was married to Amphitrite, by whom he had three children, Triton, Rhode, and Benthesicyme, but he also had a good number of children by other divinities and mortal women.

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On the Left: Mosaic: Poseidon rides across the sea in a chariot drawn by two Hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses. 3rd century AD. On the Right: Poseidon with tirdent on hand driving a chariot, drawn by two Hippokampoi.  3rd century AD.

On the Left: Mosaic: Poseidon rides across the sea in a chariot drawn by two Hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses. 3rd century AD. On the Right: Poseidon with tirdent on hand driving a chariot, drawn by two Hippokampoi. 3rd century AD.

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►Gallery: “Poseidon, The God of Sea” (Greek Vases):

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On the Left: Head of Poseidon. Bronze Piece (between 227-200 BC). On the Right: Neptune with two hippocampus by Perino del Vaga. 16th century.

On the Left: Head of Poseidon. Bronze Piece (between 227-200 BC). On the Right: Neptune with two hippocampus by Perino del Vaga. 16th century.

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“Hear, Poseidon, ruler of the sea profound, whose liquid grasp begirds the solid ground; who, at the bottom of the stormy main, dark and deep-bosomed holdest they watery reign. Thy awful hand the brazen trident bears, and sea’s utmost bound thy will reveres. Thee I invoke, whose steeds the foam divide, from whose dark locks the briny waters glide; shoe voice, loud sounding through the roaring deep, drives all its billows in a raging heap; when fiercely riding through the boiling sea, thy hoarse command the trembling waves obey. Earth-shaking, dark-haired God, the liquid plains, the third division, fate to thee ordains. ‘Tis thine, cerulean daimon, to survey, well-pleased, the monsters of the ocean play. Confirm earth’s basis, and with prosperous gales waft ships along, and swell the spacious sails; add gentle peace, and fair-haired health beside, and pour abundance in a blameless tide”. (Orphic Hymn 17 to Poseidon).~

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►Gallery: “Poseidon, The God of Sea” (Statues and Sculptures):

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"The Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite" by  Frans Francken The Younger ( 17th century).

“The Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite” by Frans Francken The Younger ( 17th century).

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 "The Return of Neptune" by John Singleton Copley (1754).

“The Return of Neptune” by John Singleton Copley (1754).

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Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Poseidon.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poseidon
http://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/poseidon/
http://www.chateauversailles.fr/homepage
https://ladysighs.wordpress.com/2015/01/27/greek-god-poseidon/
https://poemsandpoemes.wordpress.com/2015/01/24/amazing-neptune/
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►Check out this Blog!~ Symbol Reader~

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Aquarius by Johfra Bosschart. 20th century.

“Aquarius” by Johfra Bosschart. 20th century. Source: http://symbolreader.net/2014/02/12/images-of-the-zodiac-contemplating-aquarius/

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►Check out this Blog and particularly this Post:

~Poetic ParfaitOut Out, By Robert Frost”:

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~Poetic Parfait~Click here.

~Poetic Parfait~Click here.

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Click here to read it.

"Poetry Analysis: ‘Out, Out-‘ by Robert Frost". Click here.

“Poetry Analysis: ‘Out, Out” by Robert Frost”. Thank you for the mention Christy!.

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►Last but not Least: “Three Awards”:

I) I want to thank Euphonos from EuphonosBooks for nominating me for a “One Lovely Blog Award” (Pink Version).

II) I also want to thank for I am also very thankful to have been nominated for the “Wonderful Team Member Readership Award” by Csolisp .

III) Finally I would like to thank José Sala for nominating me for a “Liebster Award” (Pink Version).

Please make sure to check out these three great blogs I mentioned above, and to follow them If you haven’t still done so!.~

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►Rules for these Three Awards:

* Thank the person who nominated you for the award.
* Add the logo to your post.
* Nominate ten (10) bloggers you admire and inform your nominees by commenting on their blogs. 

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►I) Nominees~”One Lovely Blog Award” (Pink Version).~

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1. House of Heart 2. Writer’s Notebook 3. Después de la Media Rueda 4. Poetic Parfait 6. Comienzo de Cero 7. Shehanne Moore 8. Impractical Dreamer 9. Morning Coffee 10. The Reading Bud.

:star: :star: :star: :star: :star:

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►II) Nominees~“Wonderful Team Member Readership Award” (Rad Version).~

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1. Chrisnelson61 2. Things That Never Made It Into Print 3. José Sala 4. Litebeing Chronicles 5. Ivdorado 6. Implied Spaces 7. Merlinspielen 8. The Adventures of a 20 Something 9. Dewin Nefol 10. The Write Might.

:star: :star: :star: :star: :star:

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►III) Nominees~”Liebster Award” (Pink Version).~

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Liebster Award

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1. By the Sea 2. The Wall Gallery Blog. Csolisp 4. The Empathy Queen 5. Of Glass & Paper 6. The Cat’s Blog 7. Mieux Vivre Jardin 8. Coffee n’ Notes 9. Freed from Time 10. Marcia’s Book Talk.

:star: :star: :star: :star: :star:

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►Greek Mythology: “The Nereids, Fifty Sea Nymphs”:

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"A Mermaid" by John William Waterhouse (1900).

“A Mermaid” by John William Waterhouse (1900).

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The Nereids were fifty goddesses of the sea, daughters of Nereus (eldest son of Pontus, the Sea and Gaia, the Earth) and Doris (an Oceanid and Sea Nymph). They were sisters of  Nerites (a young minor sea god).

They Nereids were the patrons of sailors and fishermen, who came to the aid of men in distress.

Individually they also represented various facets of the sea, from salty brine, to foam, sand, rocky shores, waves and currents, in addition to the various skills possessed by seamen.

They often accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, and can be friendly and helpful to sailors fighting perilous storms.

The Nereids were depicted in ancient art as beautiful young maidens, sometimes running with small dolphins or fish in their hands, or else riding on the back of dolphins, hippokampoi (fish-tailed horses) and other sea creatures.

The Nereids were different to the Sirens as those creatures we call Mermaids are, speaking properly, Nereids (fish shaped women) and not Sirens (women with bird forms).

•Sirens, Nereids and Mermaids:

The Nereids of Greek mythology gave rise to the tales of the mermaids that were so popular among later sailors’ mythology. These sea nymphs were given the features traditionally associated with the mermaid, half beautiful woman, half fish. These enchanting creatures were well known to mingle with humans and to bear children.

As to the Sirens, originally, there were only three sirens who, after being pounished, would be shaped as birds.

•The Sirens were handmaidens of Persephone, daughter of the goddess Demeter.

It is said that when Persephone was abducted by Hades, Demeter gifted the three girls with the bodies of birds so they could help search for the lost girl.

When they couldn’t find her they eventually gave up and went to live on the island of Anthemoessa, cursed by Demeter (who was angry at their abandonment of the search) to remain in their half-bird form.

The Sirens were further cursed when they entered a singing competition with the Muses and lost the contest as well as their wings and many of their feathers.

Eventually, the sirens died with the fulfillment of a prophecy that should anyone be able to resist their song, the sirens would perish.

And they did; when Odysseus had his men block their ears and then tied himself to the mast of his ship so he could listen but not interfere, the sirens hurled themselves into the sea and died as he passed.

•Poseidon and Amphitrite: One of the most well known mythological couples in which a sea- goddess related to the Nereids was involved, was that of Poseidon and Amphitrite

Amphitrite was a sea-goddess, daughter of Doris and Nereus and therefore sister of the Nereids. She might be also considered one of the Fifty Nereids (Sea-Nymphs), according to other sources.

Poseidon (Roman Equivalent: Neptune)  was  the God of the Sea and he was also referred to as “Earth-Shaker” due to his role in causing earthquakes. According to the references from Plato in his dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”, the island of Atlantis was the chosen domain of Poseidon.

So after this brief introduction and without further ado, I want to link back to Cyan Ryan’s blog as he has recently posted a “haiku-set of 20 haiku” in which he makes reference to Amphitrite and Poseidon’s love story. 

So, without further ado, make sure to read Ryan ‘s Poem: “Mermaid Wife Of Poseidon” (Haiku-Set). Also check out his remarkable poetry blog “21 Shades of Blue”. Worth Reading!~

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"Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite". Detail of a mosaic from Cirta, Roman Africa (325 BC).

“Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite”. Detail of a mosaic from Cirta, Roman Africa (325 BC).

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"Tritons and Nereids" by William Russell Flint (1911).

“Tritons and Nereids” by William Russell Flint (1911).

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"The Sea Maiden" by James Herbert Draper. (1894).

“The Sea Maiden” by James Herbert Draper. (1894).

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"Les Sirenes visitées par les Muses" by Adolphe La Lyre (19th century).

“Les Sirenes visitées par les Muses” by Adolphe La Lyre (19th century).

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►Gallery: “The Nereids”:

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"Sirens by the Sea" by Victor Karlovich Shtemberg  (19th century.

“Sirens by the Sea” by Victor Karlovich Shtemberg (19th century.

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"Mermaids Frolicking in the Sea" by Charles Edouard Boutibonne (1883).

“Mermaids Frolicking in the Sea” by Charles Edouard Boutibonne (1883).

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 "Sea Maidens" by Evelyn Pickering de Morgan (1885).

“Sea Maidens” by Evelyn Pickering de Morgan (1885).

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►Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Pontios/Nereides.html
http://www.maicar.com/GML/NEREIDS.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereid
https://geotopoi.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/liverpool-st-georges-hall-20131124-15.jpg?w=700
https://geotopoi.wordpress.com/2013/12/01/st-georges-hall-liverpool/
http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/02/05/the-difference-between-mermaids-and-sirens/
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►Last but not Least: Two Awards:

Versatile Blogger Award and Very Inspiring Blogger Award:

I) I want to thank Doris for nominationg me for a Versatile Blogger Award on my post about the Sphinxes
II) I also want to thank Suyash Chopra for nominating my blog for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award
I truly recommend to check out both blogs previously suggested above. Their posts are amazing and worth reading!.
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I) Versatile Blogger Award:
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Versatile Blogger Award.

Versatile Blogger Award.

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►Here are the Awards Rules for the Versatile Blogger Award:

1) The nominee shall display the respective logo on her/his blog and link to the blogger that has nominated her/him.

2) The nominee shall nominate fifteen (15) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about the nomination.

►These are my nominees for the for the Versatile Blogger Award:

1. Restons subversifs 2. Pursuit of Happiness 3. Jakesprinter 4. The Vigilant Lens 5. Crumpled Paper Cranes 6. Smile Calm 7. Shamagaia 8. China Soujourns Photography 9. One and the Same 10. Travels with Choppy 11. The Urban Wildlife Interface 12. Breath of Joy 13. Alacartemenus 14. My Life as an Artist 15. Catania Fashion Blog.

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II) Very Inspiring Blogger Award:

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.

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►The Award Rules for the Very Inspiring Blogger Award are:

1) The nominee shall display the respective logo on her/his blog and link to the blogger that has nominated her/him.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about the nomination.

►And, these are the nominees for this Award:

1. Living the Seasons 2. Silver in the Barn 3. Heirloom 4. To Be By Your Side 5. Dunelight 6. Just Bliss 7. EuphonosBooks 8. Megan Elizabeth 9. Pictimilitude 10. My CherryBomb Nights.

:star: :star: :star: :star: :star:

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Thanks for dropping by!.

All the best to my fellow bloggers, Aquileana :D

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►Greek Mythology: “The Erinyes” (The Furies):

►Poetry: Verónica Boletta: “Three”:

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"Orestes and the Erynies" by Gustave Moreau (1891).

“Orestes and the Erynies” by Gustave Moreau (1891).

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In Greek Mythology, the Erinyes were mainly goddesses of vengeance.

The name Erinnys, which is the more ancient one, was derived by the Greeks from the erinô or ereunaô, I hunt up or persecute, or from the Arcadian word erinuô, I am angry; so that the Erinnyes were either the angry goddesses, or the goddesses who hunt up or search after the criminal

The goddesses were often addressed by the euphemistic names Eumenides (“Kind Ones”) or Semnai Theai (“Venerable Goddesses”). Eumenides signifies “the well-meaning,” or “soothed goddesses”.

They were probably personified curses, but possibly they were originally conceived of as ghosts of the murdered. 

They were depicted as ugly, winged women with hair, arms and waists entwined with serpents:

 “You handmaidens, look at them there: like Gorgones, wrapped in sable garments, entwined with swarming snakes!”. Aeschylus, “Libation Beaers” (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.).

According to the Greek poet Hesiod, they were the daughters of Gaia (Earth) and sprang from the blood of her mutilated spouse Uranus; in the plays of Aeschylus, they were the daughters of Nyx; in those of Sophocles, they were the daughters of Darkness and of Gaia. Euripides was the first to speak of them as three in number.

Later authors named them Allecto (“Unceasing in Anger”), Tisiphone (“Avenger of Murder”), and Megaera (“Jealous”).

Among the things sacred to them we hear of serpents, chthonian animals associated with the Underworld. Also their sacred bird was the screech owl, a nocturnal bird of ill omen, closely associated with curses and the gods of the dead. As to the plants, they were associated to the narcissus.

They were particularly worshipped at Athens, where a festival called Eumenideia was celebrated in their honour.

These goddesses were sometimes seen as servants of Hades and Persephone in the Underworld.

As the Erinyes not only punished crimes after death, but during life on earth, they were conceived also as goddesses of fate, who, together with Zeus and the Moirae, led such men as were doomed to suffer into misery and misfortunes.

The wrath of the Erinyes manifested itself in a number of ways.

The most severe of these was the tormenting madness inflicted upon a patricide or matricide. Murderers might suffer illness or disease; and a nation harbouring such a criminal, could suffer dearth, and with it hunger and disease.

This is mostly what happens in Aeschylus’s “Oresteia”, a three-act drama of family fate, like the “Oedipus trilogy” by Sophocles.

The three parts of “The Oresteia” are: First: “Agamemnon”. Second: “The Libation Bearers“. Third and last play: “The Eumenides”.

In “Agamemnon”, Clytemnestra herself  murders his husband Agamemnon.

In “The Libation Bearers”, Clytemnestra is murdered by her son Orestes.

In the  third and last play,”The Eumenides”, Orestes is judged because of his crime by a jury composed of Athena and twelve Athenians. Although Orestes’ actions were what Apollo had commanded him to do, Orestes has still committed matricide, a grave sacrilege. Because of this, he is pursued and tormented by the terrible Erinyes. 

In Aeschylus’ tragedy “The Eumenides”, the Erinyes introduce themselves and later on, say to Orestes: 

“We claim to be just and upright. No wrath from us will come stealthily to the one who holds out clean hands, and he will go through life unharmed; but whoever sins and hides his blood-stained hands, as avengers of bloodshed we appear against him to the end, presenting ourselves as upright witnesses for the dead”. (Aeschylus’ Oresteia “The Eumenides”. 310).
“We drive matricides from their homes … Since a mother’s blood leads us, we will pursue our case against this man and we will hunt him down”… (Aeschylus’ Oresteia “The Eumenides”. 230).
“Allow us in return to suck the red blood from your living limbs. May we feed on you -a gruesome drink! We will wither you alive and drag you down, so that you pay atonement for your murdered mother’s agony”. (Aeschylus’ Oresteia “The Eumenides”. 265).

At Delphi’s Oracle, Orestes has been told by Apollo that he should go to Athens to seek the aid of the goddess Athena.

Once in Athens, Athena arranges for Orestes to be tried by a jury of Athenian citizens, with her presiding.

The Erinyes appear as Orestes’ accusers, while Apollo speaks in his defense. The jury vote is evenly split.

Athena participates in the vote and declares Orestes acquitted because of the rules she established for the trial.

Despite the verdict, the Erinyes threaten to torment all inhabitants of Athens.

Athena, however, offers the ancient goddesses a new role, as protectors of justice. Thus, she persuades them to break the cycle of blood for blood, as  as mercy should always take precedence over harshness. This threat satisfy the Erinyes, who are then led by Athena in a procession to their new city.

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"Orestes Pursued by the Furies" by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1861).

“Orestes Pursued by the Furies” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1861).

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►Gallery: “The Erinyes” (The Three Furies):

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►Poetry: A poem by Verónica Boletta: “Three”:

Fate

is revenge.

Impious triad of

blood,

tears and whips.

Talion’s trident, (*)

incarnated in snakes:

haughty,

horrific and

unmentionable.

Each murder

finds punishment

in the gathering point

in which Eternity

and Infinite

turn into Hell.

Death

is not solace,

nor sheltering sky.

Hence…

madness.

©2014 Verónica Boletta.-

Note: (*) Talionthe system or legal principle of making the punishment correspond to the crime; retaliation.

●▬▬▬▬▬▬۩۩▬▬▬▬▬▬●

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►About Verónica Boletta:

Verónica lives in La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She has a degree in Economic Sciences. 

‘Numbers’ are her Career of Currency as she says.

Regardless, she has her own “B side”. She is also a writer and therefore likes to embrace ‘Words’, particularly in the shape of great poems…

So, being this said and without further ado, make sure to check out Verónica’s blog hereAlso feel free to connect with her at Twitter

Verónica Boletta dixit“Abrazo los números como profesión de divisas y las palabras como profesión y esperanza de vida. Reescribo mis credenciales y mis cartas de presentación así como borroneo en bocetos, la vida. Soy la mirada y el ojo, los sonidos y el oído, las letras del abecedario y las palabras, los pies en la tierra y la esperanza en el cielo”.~

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Verónica Boletta.-

Verónica Boletta.-

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►Links Post:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/222733/Furies
http://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Erinyes.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erinyes
http://dutchie.org/goddess-erinyes/ 
http://www.maicar.com/GML/ERINYES.html
http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Furies.html

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►Greek Mythology: “The Moirae” (“The Three Fates”):

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"The Triumph of Death", or "The Three Fates". Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, 1510-1520).

“The Triumph of Death”, or “The Three Fates”. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, 1510-1520).

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In Greek Mythology The Moirae or Moirai (in Greek Μοῖραι, meaning the “apportioners”, often called The Fates), were the three white-robed personifications of  Destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, “sparing ones”). They assigned to every person his or her fate or share in the scheme of things. 

Their number became fixed at three: Clotho, (spinner), Lachesis (allotter) and Atropos (unturnable).

Clotho (“spinner”) spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle. Her Roman equivalent was Nona, (the ‘Ninth’), who was originally a goddess called upon in the ninth month of pregnancy.

Lachesis (“allotter” or drawer of lots) measured the thread of life allotted to each person with her measuring rod. Her Roman equivalent was Decima  (the ‘Tenth’).

Atropos (or Aisa, “inexorable” or “inevitable”) was the cutter of the thread of life. She chose the manner of each person’s death; and when their time was come, she cut their life-thread with “her abhorred shears”. Her Roman equivalent was Morta (‘Death’).

Clotho carried a spindle or a roll (the book of fate), Lachesis a staff with which she pointed to the horoscope on a globe, and Atropos a scroll, a wax tablet, a sundial, a pair of scales, or a cutting instrument.

The three were also shown with staffs or sceptres, the symbols of dominion, and sometimes even with crowns. At the birth of each man they appeared spinning, measuring, and cutting the thread of life.

Being goddesses of fate, they had to necessarily know the future, which at times they revealed, and thus became prophetic divinities. 

moirae11In Homer’s “Iliad”Moira, who was just one, acted independently from the gods. 

Only Zeuswas close to Moira. Using a weighing scale (balance,) Zeus weighed trojan hero Hector’s “lot of death” against the one of Achilles.

Zeus appeared as the guider of destiny, who gave everyone the right portion. 

In Hesiod’s  “Theogony”, the three Moirae were daughters of the primeval goddess, Nyx (“Night”).

Later, the Moirae were considered daughters of Zeus who gave them the greatest honour, and Themis, the ancient goddess of law and divine order.

According to some sources they were sisters of three of the Horae: Eunomia (lawfulness, order), Dike (Justice), and Eirene (Peace).

As goddesses of death, they appeared together with the Keres, who were Nyx’s daughters and the female spirits (daimones) of violent or cruel death and the infernal Erinnyes (or Furies), who were three goddesses who avenged crimes against the natural order.

The Moirae had sanctuaries in many parts of Greece, such as Corinth, Sparta, Olympia and Thebes.

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"The Three Fates" by Godfrey Sykes (1855).

“The Three Fates” by Godfrey Sykes (1855).

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►Gallery: “The Moirae”:

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"The Moerae: Atropus,  Clotho and Lachesis". Frescoes (135-140 BC). Ostia Antica, Italy.

“The Moerae: Atropus, Clotho and Lachesis”. Frescoes (135-140 BC). Italy.

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►Poetry: Allea Jacta Est: “The Die has been Cast”. 

(A sort of Card Poem, by Aquileana).

(Painting: “The Three Fates” by Michelangelo. 1882).

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Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Daimon/Moirai.html#Zeus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moirai 
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Moira
http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/boardarchives/2002/sep2002/threefates.html

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►Last but not Least: One Lovely Blog Award: 

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September 2014. Inesemj photography & The Happy Quitter.

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I have recently been nominated from “Strings of Soulfulness” for a One Lovely Blog Award. I recommend this blog. You’ll find inspirational posts, mainly in the shape of beautiful poems. Among the introductory lines of this blog, I found these ones: “Learning to be eternal in all the ways of living”. I thought those words were both touching and wise. I bet you are nodding in agreement with me!. Hence, you’d better check out the blog in order to draw your own conclusions  and borne out the previous opinions.

►Here are the Award Ruless:

1) The nominee shall display the respective logo on her/his blog and link to the blogger that has nominated her/him.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten to fifteen (10 to 15) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about the nomination.

In this occasion, I will nominate -in no particular order- new followers and/or great bloggers I have recently met or that I haven’t nominated yet.

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►And here are my nominees for the Lovely Blog Award:

 1. Judith Shaw 2. Sadness Theory 3. Profane Light 4. Il Mondo di Beatrice 5. Doris Pacheco 6. Jadi Campbell 7. Español con Virgulilla 8. A Rose in Bloom 9. Unchained Emporium 10. King-The Series 11. Pull of the Sun 12. El Duende de las Palabras 13. La Pelie 14. Palabras al Viento 15. Entelequia Efímera.

:star: :star::star: :star::star:

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►Greek Mythology: “Selene, Goddess of the Moon”:

►Poetry: “Selene Awakens”, by Christy Birmingham:

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“Luna” by Evelyn De Morgan (1885).

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Selene is the Greek Goddess of the Moon. She is the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia.

Besides, Selene is sister of the Sun-God Helios, and Eos, Goddess of the Dawn.

In classical times, Selene was often identified with Artemis, much as her brother, Helios, was identified with Apollo.

Just as Helios, from his identification with Apollo, is called Phoebus (“bright”), Selene, from her identification with Artemis, is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine from the name is of Greek origin, it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας), meaning “light”.

Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate, and all three were regarded as Lunar Goddesses, although only Selene was regarded as the personification of the moon itself. Her Roman equivalent is Luna.

Like her brother Helios, the Sun god, who drives his chariot across the sky each day, Selene is also said to drive across the heavens.

The moon chariot is often described as being silver. And while the sun chariot has four horses, Selene’s usually has two, described as “snow-white” by Ovid, or was drawn by oxen or bulls.

Selene is commonly depicted with a crescent moon, often accompanied by stars; sometimes, instead of a crescent, a lunar disc is used. Often a crescent moon rests on her brow, or the cusps of a crescent moon protrude, horn-like, from her head, or from behind her head or shoulders. From the Hellenistic period onwards, she is sometimes pictured with a torch.

Several lovers are attributed to Selene in various myths, including her brother Helios, with whom she had four daughters, known as the Horae, the four Goddesses of the seasons. The Horae were Goddesses of time, seasons and natural cycles. They were originally the personifications of nature in its different seasonal aspects, but in later times they were regarded as goddesses of order in general and natural justice. 

Also Pan, the God of the wild, shepherds and flocks, was Selene’s lover. 

Even Zeus, the God of the sky and ruler of the Olympian gods, was her lover.  As a matter of fact, some sources report that the Nemean lion, which fell to the earth from the moon was the result of an affair of Zeus and Selene.

However, among all of them, the mortal Endymion was Selene’s most well known  lover.

Selene fell in love with the shepard, Endymion, and seduced him while he lie sleeping in a cave. Her seduction of Endymion resulted in the birth of fifty daughters, one of which was Naxos.

Their daughters represented the fifty lunar months of the Olympiad, or period of four years marking the beginning of the Olympic games in ancient Greece.

But Endymion was human, and so susceptible to aging and eventually death. Selene could not bear that fact. According to one of the most well known versions of the myth, she made certain that Endymion would remain eternally youthful by casting a spell that would cause him to sleep forever. In this way, Endymion would remain alive for always, sleeping eternally.

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►Gallery: “Selene and Endymion”:

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►A Poem By Christy Birmingham:

“Selene Awakens”: 

Drive.

Selene is moving fast,

Driving across the heavens in a

Lane of her own, behind the reins, in a

Moon chariot that lights up with her determination,

Pulled by two horses and a faith in Greek spirits larger than Earth.

 

Watch for Selene overhead, with her head shining brightly, bearing

A crescent moon that reaches from her forehead to

Your heart, as you watch her in hopes that

She will know the secret to why the

Sun chooses to sleep at night,

While she awakens and

You yearn for

Dreams.

 ©2014 Christy Birmingham.-

★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ ★

moon

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►About Christy Birmingham:

Christy is a canadian freelance writer, poet and author.

She is the author of the poetry collection “Pathways to Illumination” (2013), available  at Redmund Productions.

You can check out Christy Birmingham´s writer portfolio here

She also hosts two great blogs: Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire. 

Feel free to connect with Christy at  Twitter too. 

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Christy Birmingham. Author, Poet, Freelance Writer.

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Poetic Parfait: http://poeticparfait.com/ When Women Inspire: http://whenwomeninspire.com/

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"The Moon and the Stars"(series) by Alphonse Mucha (1902).

“The Moon and the Stars”(series) by Alphonse Mucha (1902).

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►Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Selene.html 
http://www.maicar.com/GML/Selene.html 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selene 
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/s/selene.html 
http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Horai.html
 http://www.muchafoundation.org/gallery/browse-works/object/245

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►Greek Mythology: “The Golden Apple of Discord” /

►Poetry: “Who is The Fairest?”, by Christy Birmingham:

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

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The Garden of the Hesperides was Hera´s  orchard, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving golden apples grew. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additional safeguard. 

However, in the mythology surrounding “the Judgement of Paris”, the goddess of Discord Eris managed to enter the garden and pluck a golden apple.

Eris had become  disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (Achilles ‘ parents).

Angered by this snub, Eris arrived at the celebration with a golden apple, which she threw into the proceedings, upon which was the inscription Kallisti ( ‘For the most beautiful one’ or ‘For the Fairest’).

Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. Prince Paris of Troy as appointed to select the recipient. 

While Paris inspected them, each attempted with her powers to bribe him; Hera offered to make him king of Europe and Asia, Athena offered wisdom and skill in war, and Aphrodite, offered the world’s most beautiful woman.

This was Helen of Sparta, wife of the Greek king Menelaus. Paris accepted Aphrodite’s gift and awarded the apple to her.

Later on, he abducted her, all of Greece declared war against Troy, causing the Trojan War and the eventual destruction of Troy. 

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

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►A Poem By Christy Birmingham: “Who is the Fairest?”

(Based on the Greek Myth of “The Golden Apple of Discord”): 

If I transported back to mythical times,

Would I be the fairest?

Would I be the one to snatch the

Apple first, savoring the

Fruit, eyes and delight of all?

 

If so, I would stand above Athena, Hera and

Aphrodite, in this beauty contest that

Judges only our outer skin, revealing nothing of

Our spirits, as though denying us the

Opportunity to reveal our sweet, fruity tastes.

 

If I transported back to mythical times,

I wonder if I would also bribe Paris to win –

And what would I offer as the winning power?

Would it be savory or sweet?

 

Indeed, the golden apple caused quite the uproar,

An apple of discord not to be forgotten,

And I only hope that my winning power is

One day revealed,

As it is a blend unlike any other:

 

It is the ability to connect with you.

 

 ©2014 Christy Birmingham.-

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The poem “Who is the Fairest?” was originally written by Christy Birmingham as a recreation of the Greek myth related to the Judgement of Paris and the Golden Apple of Discord.

►About Christy Birmingham:

Christy is a freelance writer, poet and author. She lives in British Columbia, Canada. 

She writes poetry and short stories to motivate readers and to reach out to struggling women. Her intent is to spread hope and understanding about depression, abuse and other issues.

Christy has written countless poems since childhood. She is the author of the poetry collection “Pathways to Illumination” (2013), available exclusively at Redmund Productions.

You can check out Christy Birmingham´s writer portfolio here

She also hosts two great blogs: Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire.  (You can also check out this post at Poetic Parfait: here).

Feel free to connect with Christy on social media at Twitter and Google Plus .

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"The Golden Apple of Discord", labelled Kallisti ("For the Most Beautiful One").-

“The Golden Apple of Discord”, labelled Kallisti (“For the Fairest” / “For the Most Beautiful One” ).-

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►Paintings : “The Judgement of Paris”:

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►Links post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_(symbolism)
http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Fruit-in-Mythology.html
http://www.spiffy-entertainment.com/applediscord.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesperides
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5452761_paris-golden-apple-greek-myth.html
http://poeticparfait.com/about/

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