♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On The Concepts of Will and Free Will”:
I) ♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Will”:
Schopenhauer is an idealist, meaning that to him matter does not exist independent of a mind there to perceive it.
For Schopenhauer the world is driven by an all-pervading and inescapable will. The Will is the thing-in-itself. Schopenhauer’s Will is not the individual psychological will, but a universal metaphysical principle, spaceless and timeless and uncaused,
All actions taken are ultimately derived from this omnipresent drive of survival that he believes can be found everywhere around us. We may perceive and control our individual, conscious actions, but they are always being pushed, unconsciously by this will.
The Will, according to Schopenhauer, manifests itself in the individual as impulse, instinct and craving.
Organic attraction and mechanical pull are both to Schopenhauer expressions of the Will-to-live. This Will tries falsely to overcome death by self-reproduction. This is why, says Schopenhauer, the sexual urge is so strong in all beings.
The world itself is a representation of this will, therefore the will is the reality behind the world of appearances. However, the catch is that each manifestation of the will that we recognize is exactly that, particular manifestations, not the world “in itself.” Therefore while we are blindly driven by this force, we are separate from it, or better put, we are separate from a real conscious understanding of it and what it causes us to do.
♠II) Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Free Will”:
Schopenhauer largely rejected the idea of free will in the sense that actions are always determined by an unchanging character and incentives or motives.
There is a distinction made here between the freedom to will and the freedom to act. For Schopenhauer given the same circumstances each one of us would have the same will, so you really have no choice in the matter. This philosophy of free will is a sort of determinism with illusionary freedom. We think that we are responsible for our actions, but according to Schopenhauer, things could not have gone any differently, they were inevitable from the circumstances.
Arthur Schopenhauer’s concept of the Freedom of the Will can be summarized as follows:
→We can do as we will, but we cannot will as we will
→Character is determined by nature, not by the environment
One of Schopenhauer´s most famous quotes in his book “On the Freedom Of the Will (1839) is: “Man can do what he wills but he cannot will what he wills”.
Basically with these words he meant to say that we have a free will to a limited degree. We are driven but also restrained by our instincts. However, we are guided most of all by the existing customs and codes of morality that are current in our part of society.
Schopenhauer is against a code of morals that is strictly based on reason. This is another point where him and Kant are divergent. What is truly the good thing is not always the rational thing, and something truly bad can be made to seem rational given the circumstances. Therefore doing good is not an act of reason or divine law, it is just some people manage to see the world in a ethical light while others never will.
♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On Human Nature” (Complete Text):
Click here to read Chapter III: “Free Will and Fatalism”.-_______________________________________________________________________________________________
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Thanks to the Blog / Gracias al Blog Los Sentidos de La Vida:
♠Thanks Sylvester (AKA Poet Bro) for being there with your words and good vibes earlier today (February 24th).
♠A Poem: “For A Friend”. By Sylvester L. Anderson: