♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On The Concepts of Will and Free Will”:

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 / 1860).-

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 / 1860).-


I) ♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Will”:

Schopenhauer is an idealist, meaning that to him matter does not exist independent of a mind there to perceive it. 

For Schopenhauer the world is driven by an all-pervading and inescapable will. The Will is the thing-in-itself. Schopenhauer’s Will is not the individual psychological will, but a universal metaphysical principle, spaceless and timeless and uncaused, 

All actions taken are ultimately derived from this omnipresent drive of survival that he believes can be found everywhere around us. We may perceive and control our individual, conscious actions, but they are always being pushed, unconsciously by this will.

The Will, according to Schopenhauer, manifests itself in the individual as impulse, instinct and craving.

Organic attraction and mechanical pull are both to Schopenhauer expressions of the Will-to-live. This Will tries falsely to overcome death by self-reproduction. This is why, says Schopenhauer, the sexual urge is so strong in all beings.

The world itself is a representation of this will, therefore the will is the reality behind the world of appearances. However, the catch is that each manifestation of the will that we recognize is exactly that, particular manifestations, not the world “in itself.” Therefore while we are blindly driven by this force, we are separate from it, or better put, we are separate from a real conscious understanding of it and what it causes us to do.




♠II) Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Free Will”:

Schopenhauer largely rejected the idea of free will in the sense that actions are always determined by an unchanging character and incentives or motives.

There is a distinction made here between the freedom to will and the freedom to act. For Schopenhauer given the same circumstances each one of us would have the same will, so you really have no choice in the matter. This philosophy of free will is a sort of determinism with illusionary freedom. We think that we are responsible for our actions, but according to Schopenhauer, things could not have gone any differently, they were inevitable from the circumstances.

Arthur Schopenhauer’s concept of the Freedom of the Will can be summarized as follows:

→We can do as we will, but we cannot will as we will

→Character is determined by nature, not by the environment

One of Schopenhauer´s most famous quotes in his book “On the Freedom Of the Will (1839) is: “Man can do what he wills but he cannot will what he wills”.

Basically with these words he meant to say that we have a free will to a limited degree. We are driven but also restrained by our instincts. However, we are guided most of all by the existing customs and codes of morality that are current in our part of society.

Schopenhauer is against a code of morals that is strictly based on reason. This is another point where him and Kant are divergent. What is truly the good thing is not always the rational thing, and something truly bad can be made to seem rational given the circumstances. Therefore doing good is not an act of reason or divine law, it is just some people manage to see the world in a ethical light while others never will.




♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On Human Nature” (Complete Text):

Click above to read "On Human Nature", by Arthur Schopenhauer.-

Click above to read “On Human Nature”, by Arthur Schopenhauer.-

Click here to read Chapter III: “Free Will and Fatalism”.-_______________________________________________________________________________________________

♠Enlaces en Castellano relacionados con este Post:

(Hacer Click sobre el título respectivo)

Arthur Schopenhauer: “Ensayo Sobre el Libre Albedrío” o “Ensayo Sobre la Libertad de la Voluntad Humana”.-

Arthur Schopenhauer: “La Arrogancia del que, por tener Libre Albedrío, cree que es Libre”.-

Arthur Schopenhauer: “El Amor y Otras Pasiones. La Libertad”.-




♠Links Post:  


♠Last But Not Least: Blog Nomination to Versatile Blogger Award / Nominación al Premio Versatile Blogger Award:

Thanks to the Blog / Gracias al Blog Los Sentidos de La Vida:

Click above/ Hacer cCick arriba.-

Click above / Hacer Click arriba.-


♠Thanks Sylvester (AKA Poet Bro) for being there with your words and good vibes earlier today (February 24th). 

♠A Poem: “For A Friend”. By Sylvester L. Anderson:

Click on the image to visit Sylvester´s blog.-

Click on the Image to visit Sylvester´s blog.-


♠Aristotle´s Nichomachean Ethics: “Three Types of Friendship”

(Based on Utility, Pleasure and Goodness):





In Book VIII of “The Nichomachean Ethics”, Aristotle makes reference to three kinds of friendship.

1) The first is friendship based on utility, where both people derive some benefit from each other.

Aristotle describes a friendship of utility as shallow, “easily dissolved” or for the old. He views them as such because this type of friendship is easily broken and based on something that is brought to the relationship by the other person. Aristotle uses the example of trade and argues that friendships of utility are often between opposite people, in order to maximize this trade

2) The second is friendship based on pleasure, where both people are drawn to the other’s wit, good looks, or other pleasant qualities. Aristotle says that riendship of pleasure is normally built between the young as passions and pleasures are great influences in their lives. This type of relationship is characterized by such feelings as passion between lovers, or the feeling of belonging among a likeminded group of friends. It differs from the friendship of utility in that those who seek utility friendships are looking for a business deal or a long term benefit, whereas the friendship of pleasure Aristotle describes is where one seeks something which is pleasant to them presently.

The first two kinds of friendship are only accidental, because in these cases friends are motivated by their own utility and pleasure, not by anything essential to the nature of the friend. Both of these kinds of friendship are short-lived because one’s needs and pleasures are apt to change over time.

3) The third is friendship based on goodness, where both people admire the other’s goodness and help one another strive for goodness.

Friendships of the good are ones where both friends enjoy each other’s characters. Aristotle calls it a “…complete sort of friendship between people who are good and alike in virtue…” This is the highest level of Philia,(φιλία), often translated “brotherly love”, and one of the highest forms of Love in Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics”.

Aristotle (384 BC / 322 BC).-

Aristotle (384 BC / 322 BC).-

Those involved in friendship of the good must be able to value loving over being loved and as such, their relationship will be based more around loving the other person and wanting what is good for them.  Goodness is an enduring quality, so friendships based on goodness tend to be long lasting.

This friendship encompasses the other two, as good friends are useful to one another and please one another. Such friendship is rare and takes time to develop, but it is the best.

As well, Aristotle believes that it is through friendship that cities are held together. Those with the moral virtue to enter virtuous relationships are a major part of this but friendships of utility and pleasure are also needed as friendships of virtue are severely limited in number It is the friendships of utility and pleasure that keep the city together. however; it takes the character of those in the virtuous friendship for a solid community to exist.

Aristotle states in Book VIII, Chapter 1: “Between friends there is no need for justice, but people who are just still need the quality of friendship; and indeed friendliness is considered to be justice in the fullest sense. It is not only a necessary thing but a splendid one”. Aristotle bases his conception of justice on a conception of fair exchange, and does the same for friendship. Friendships are balanced by the fact that each friend gives as much as receives. Hence, justice and friendship are closely connected.


♠Read The Nichomachean Ethics By Aristotle (Complete Text):

Click on the image above to read it.-

Click on the image above to read “The Nichomachean Ethics”, by Aristotle.-


♠Index of Contents: Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics”:

Click above for further details.-

Click above for more details on Aristotle´s “Nichomachean Ethics” .-








♠Links Post:



♠Last but not least: The Versatile Blogger Award:

Thanks Salvela for nominating me for this great award. Gracias por la nominación, Salvela.-



The Rules of the Award:

1. Display the award logo on your blog /Ubicar el logo del premio en el blog
2. Link back to the person who nominated you/ Enlazar a la persona que te ha nominado.
3. State 7 things about yourself/ Numerar 7 cosas sobre tí.
4. Nominate 15 (more or less) other bloggers for this award and link to them/ Nominar a 15 otros bloggers y enlazarlos
5. Notify those bloggers of the nomination and the award requirements/ Notificar a los nominados de la nominación y de las reglas.

My Nominees Are / Mis nominados son: 1) English Through ICT. 2)The Regular Guy NYC. 3) Blue Fish Way. 4) English with a Twist. 5) Geografía Subjetiva. 6) Reconstructing Christina. 7) Ajaytao 2010. 8) Plato´s Symposium. 9) Philosopher mouse of the Hedge. 10) Tom Gething Re Reading. 11) Keith Garrett Poetry. 12) John Coyote. 13) Magnificum Sanctórum. 14) Authentic Teaching. 15) Anatomía de la Intimidad.

If you don´t want to get awards over your blog, you can take it as a little gesture of recognition for your great job as a blogger. Thanks and keep it up / Si no quieres premios en tu blog, puedes tomar la nominación como un gesto de reconocimiento por tu excelente labor como Blogger. Sigue así. Aquileana :)


♠Plato´s Dialogue, “The Symposium”:

“On Platonic Love and The Myth of the Androgyne”:



“The Symposium” ( Συμπόσιον) is a dialogue by Plato dated c. 385–380 BC. 

Plato sets the action in a symposium hosted by the poet Agathon to celebrate his first victory in a dramatic competition, the Dionysia of 416 BC. Each man must deliver an encomiun, a speech in praise of Love (Eros).   Each participant, by means of very personal expositions, adds something to a body that at the end is developed by Socrates. 

The dialogue concerns itself at one level with the genesis, purpose and nature of love, and (in latter-day interpretations) is the origin of the concept of Platonic Love

Platonic love is a type of Love that is chaste and non-sexual. This idea is also examined in this dialogue. Of particular importance is the speech of Socrates, relating the ideas attributed to the prophetess Diotima, which present love as a means of ascent to contemplation of the divine. For Diotima, and for Plato generally, the most correct use of love of other human beings is to direct one’s mind to love of divinity.

The dialogue´s  structure consists in seven major speeches which are delivered by: 1) Phaedrus (speech begins 178a): He was an Athenian aristocrat. Pausanias  (speech begins 180c): He was a legal expert. 3) The pshysician Eryximachus. 4) Aristophanes, a comic playwright (speech begins 189c). 5) Agathon (speech begins 195a): He a tragic poet, host of the banquet. 6) Socrates  (speech begins 201d): He was a Philosopher and Plato’s teacher. 7) Alcibiades (speech begins 214e), who was a prominent Athenian statesman and orator.


♠Aristophanes speech: “The Myth of the Androgyne”: (To Read the excerpt from “The Symposium” click here)

Before launching his speech, Aristophanes warns the group that his  praise to love may be more absurd than funny. His speech is an explanation of why people in love say they feel “whole” when they have found their love partner.

Aristophanes’ speech comes in the form of a myth.

This creation myth places humans of all three genders (androgynous, male, and female) in a primeval state of eternal bliss. However, we grew insolent in our blissful state and refused to properly honor the gods (and even tried to pursue them in their mountainous home). As punishment, we were split in two. Those with a “male” nature (the Children of the Sun) became homosexual men; those with a “female” nature (the Children of the Earth) became homosexual women; and the androgynes (Children of the Moon) became heterosexuals.

These creatures were very powerful and vigorous and made threatening attacks on the gods. The gods did not want to destroy them because they would then forfeit the sacrifices humans made to them, so Zeus decided to cut each person in two.

This is the origin of our instinctive desire for other human beings. Those who are interested in members of the opposite sex are halves of formerly androgynous people, while men who like men and women who like women are halves of what were formerly whole males and females.

Given that we are all separate, when we find our other half, we are lost in an amazement of love that cannot be accounted for by a simple desire for sex Love is the name that we give to our desire for wholeness, to be restored to our original nature.





Just something to highlight: Have you ever thought that the expression “Meet My Half  Orange” could be linked with Aristophanes’s speech in this dialogue by Plato. And the same applies for “Soulmate”. Just for the record: Plato and Aristotle have argued about all the main philosophical topics ever, so their texts are all well worth reading, Aquileana.



Where is My Half Orange?.-


Plato (427 BC /347 BC).-

Plato (427 BC /347 BC).-


♠Read “The Symposium”, by Plato (Complete Text):

Click on the book cover above to read "The Symposium" by Plato.-

Click on the book cover to read “The Symposium” by Plato.-



Image of  an androgyne, detail on ancient greek amphora.-



Drawings of androgynous, dated Middle Age.-


Nota a los lectores en castellano: Este tema ya ha sido tratado en el blog. 

Para consultarlo hacer click sobre el siguiente enlace: Platón: “El Banquete”: “El Mito del Andrógino”.


♠Bonustrack: Hedwig and the Angry Inch: “Origin of Love”: 

This song is based on Plato’s Symposium (myth of the androgyne). Check out the lyrics.



♠Links Post: 



♠Last but not least: The Cracking Chrispmouse Bloggywog Award. 

Thanks Maxima for nominating me for this beautiful award

The Cracking Chrispmouse Bloggywog Award.-

The Cracking Chrispmouse Bloggywog Award.-


The Rules of the Award:

1. Display the award logo on your blog /Ubicar el logo del premio en el blog
2. Link back to the person who nominated you/ Enlazar a la persona que te ha nominado.
3. State 7 things about yourself/ Numerar 7 cosas sobre tí.
4. Nominate 15 (more or less) other bloggers for this award and link to them/ Nominar a 15 otros bloggers y enlazarlos
5. Notify those bloggers of the nomination and the award requirements/ Notificar a los nominados de la nominación y de las reglas.

My Nominees Are: Clowie´s Corner,Pure Haiku, Family answers fast, Cat Forsley Me, Salvela, Rotze Mardini, Syl65, E-tinkerbell´s blog,Bastet and Sekhmet´s LibraryLetras, pasión y más, D. A. Lavoie, Nómadas, Gigi papillon rose, Mon coin du français, El Mirador

If you don´t want to get awards over your blog, you can take it as a gesture of recognition for your great job as a blogger. Cheers, Aquileana :)


♠Aristotle’s Three Types of Knowledge in The Nichomachean Ethics: “Techné, Episteme and Phronesis”:

Eudaimonia (Ancient Greek: εὐδαιμονία)  is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics, translated as happiness, welfare or "human flourishing".-

Eudaimonia (Ancient Greek: εὐδαιμονία) is a central concept in Aristotelian ethics, translated as happiness, welfare or “human flourishing”.-


In The Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle (384 /322) describes three approaches to knowledge. In Greek, the three are episteme, techné and phronesis

Whereas episteme concerns theoretical know why and techné denotes technical know how, phronesis emphasizes practical knowledge and practical ethics.

Aristotle classified knowledge in three different types Episteme (Scientific Knoledge), Techné (Skill and crafts) and Phronesis (Wisdom).

1.►Episteme: It means “to know” in Greek. It is related to scientific knowledge. Attributes: Universal, invariable, context-independent.  Based on general analytical rationality. Epistemology, the study of knowledge, is derived from episteme. 

Episteme was viewed by the Greeks as a partner to techné. Plato used episteme to denote ‘justified true belief”, in contrast to doxa, common belief or opinion.

2.►TechnéThe greek word translates to craftsmanship, craft, or art.

In the Dictionary of Philosophy,  it is defined as: “The set of principles, or rational method, involved in the production of an object or the accomplishment of an end; the knowledge of such principles or method; art. Techne resembles episteme in implying knowledge of principles, but differs in that its aim is making or doing, not disinterested understanding”. 

Characteristics: Pragmatic, variable, context-dependent. Oriented toward production. Based on practical instrumental rationality governed by a conscious goal. The original concept appears today in terms such as “technique” and “technology.” 

For the ancient Greeks, when techné appears as art, it is most often viewed negatively, whereas when used as a craft it is viewed positively because a craft is the practical application of an art, rather than art as an end in itself. In “The Republic”, written by Plato, the knowledge of forms is the indispensable basis for the philosophers craft of ruling in the city.

Aristotle viewed techné as an imperfect human representation of nature. Socrates and Plato also used the word, and distinguished craftsmanship (which they viewed in a positive light) from art (which they viewed in a negative light). 

3.►Phronesis It means Practical wisdom. It is related to the following main ideas: Ethics.  Deliberation about values with reference to praxis.  Pragmatic, variable, context dependent.  Oriented toward action.  Based on practical value-rationality.

Aristotle distinguished between Sophia and Phronesis in the following manner. Sophia involves reasoning concerning universal truths, while Phronesis includes a capability of rational thinking. 

In order to practice phronesis, Aristotle felt that political abilities were required, as well as thinking abilities. Aristotle categorized there elements of character (ethos) in the following manner: 1) phronesis (how to act in particular situations), 2) areté (virtue) and 3) eunoia (goodwill).-




♠Quotes From Aristotle´s “Nicomachean Ethics”

“Techné, Episteme and Phronesis”:

Aristotle (384 /322) .

Aristotle (384 /322) .-

“What science [episteme] is…will be clear from the following argument.  We all assume that what we know cannot be otherwise than it is, whereas in the case of things that may be otherwise, when they have passed out of our view we can no longer tell whether they exist or not.  Therefore, the object of scientific knowledge is of necessity.  Therefore it is eternal…  Induction introduces us to first principles and universals, while deduction starts from universals… Thus scientific knowledge is a demonstrative state, (i.e., a state of mind capable of demonstrating what it known)…i.e., a person has scientific knowledge when his belief is conditioned in a certain way, and the first principles are known to him;  because if they are not better known to him than the conclusion drawn from them, he will have knowledge only incidentally”. [N.E. 1139b18-36].
“Since building is an art [techné] and is essentially a reasoned productive state, and since there is no art that is not a state of this kind, and no state of this kind that is not an art, it follows that art is the same as a productive state that is truly reasoned.  Every art is concerned with bringing something into being, and the practice of an art is the study of how to bring into being something that is capable either of being or of not being…For it is not with things that are or come to be of necessity that art is concerned [this is the domain of episteme] nor with natural objects (because these have their origin in themselves)…Art…operates in the sphere of the variable”.  [N.E. 1140a1-23].
“We may grasp the nature of prudence [phronesis] if we consider what sort of people we call prudent.  Well, it is thought to be the mark of a prudent man to be able to deliberate rightly about what is good and advantageous…But nobody deliberates about things that are invariable…So…prudence cannot be science or art;  not science [episteme] because what can be done is a variable (it may be done in different ways, or not done at all), and not an art [techne] because action and production are generically different.  For production aims at an end other than itself;  but this is impossible in the case of action, because the end is merely doing well.  What remains, then is that it is a true state, reasoned, and capable of action with regard to things that are good or bad for man.  We consider that this quality belongs to those who understand the management of households or states”.  [N.E. 1140a24-1140b12].


 Aristotle (384 /322) .-

Aristotle (384 /322) .-


♠Attached Notes: “Techné, Episteme in Plato´s Republic“:

platoPlato’s uses the notion of techné as a way of explicating central themes, such as virtue, ruling, and the creation of the cosmos. First of all, a craft has a function (ergon); this is what it characteristically does or what it characteristically accomplishes. In fact, he highlights that crafts are differentiated by their specific functions (erga) (Rep. 346a). 

While the ergon of a craft is its goal, the goal is frequently identified with a result separate from the activity of the craft. Whereas techné is associated with knowing how to do (epistasthai) certain activities, episteme sometimes indicates a theoretical component of techné, associated then with understanding (gnôsis).

For Plato, Knowledge (episeême) is the ability to know the real as it is (Rep 477b). Knowledge, in the sense of episteme, will be deductive and logical, like mathematics; unlike mathematics, its deductions will be based on foundations that need no further justification. In part it will be something like mathematical deduction based in fundamental reality. When using mathematical thinking as an analogue for dialectic, Platon  is still relying on the notion of technê since both geometry and calculation are technai. So even though he distinguishes between techné and episteme, their relation is more of a tension than a divorce.





♠Links Post:


♠Aristotle´s Ethical Theory:

“On the Concepts of Virtue and Golden Mean”:



The concept of Aristotle’s theory of golden mean is represented in his work called “Nicomachean Ethics”, in which Aristotle explains the origin, nature and development of virtues which are essential for achieving the ultimate goal, happiness (Greek: eudaimonia), which must be desired for itself.

The virtue (areté ) or excellence of a thing causes that thing both to be itself in good condition and to perform its function well. Virtue, then, is a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount.

Aristotle’s ethics is strongly teleological, practical, which means that it should be the action that leads to the realization of the good of the human being as well as the whole. This end is realized through continuous acting in accordance with virtues which, like happiness, must be desired for themselves, not for the short term pleasures that can be derived from them. This is not to say that happiness is void of pleasures, but that pleasures are a natural effect, not the purpose. In order to act virtuously, we must first acquire virtues, by parental upbringing, experience and reason.

For Aristotle, virtue is an all-or-nothing affair. We cannot pick and choose our virtues: we cannot decide that we will be courageous and temperate but choose not to be magnificent. Nor can we call people properly virtuous if they fail to exhibit all of the virtues.

Though Aristotle lists a number of virtues, he sees them all as coming from the same source. A virtuous person is someone who is naturally disposed to exhibit all the virtues, and a naturally virtuous disposition exhibits all the virtues equally.

The word ethics descends from the Greek word ethos, which means  that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. Aristotle’s concern is then, is what constitutes a good character. All the virtues spring from a unified character, so no good person can exhibit some virtues without exhibiting them all. Aristotle describes ethical virtue as a “hexis” (“state” “condition” “disposition”)—a tendency or disposition, induced by our habits, to have appropriate feelings (Nicomachean Ethics. 1105b25–6).

Aristotle says that when the good person chooses to act virtuously, he does so for the sake of the “kalon”—a word that can mean “beautiful,” “noble,” or “fine.”. This term indicates that Aristotle sees in ethical activity an attraction that is comparable to the beauty of well-crafted artifacts, including such artifacts as poetry, music, and drama. He draws this analogy in his discussion of the mean, when he says that every craft tries to produce a work from which nothing should be taken away and to which nothing further should be added (Nicomachean Ethics. 1106b5–14).

Aristotle develops the doctrine of the mean in the course of his discussion of aretê, excellence or virtue, in Book II of the Nicomachean. There he writes that: “all excellence makes what has it good, and also enables it to perform its function well. For instance, the excellence of an eye makes the eye good and enables it to function well as an eye; having good eyes means being able to see well. Likewise, the excellence of a horse makes it a good horse, and so good at galloping, carrying its rider, and facing the enemy. If this is true in all cases, then, the excellence of a human being will be that disposition which makes him a good human being and which enables him to perform his function well”. (1106a16-25. Source: History of Philosophy Quarterly 4/3, July 1987.)

In “The virtue of Aristotle’s ethics “, Gottlieb (1) identifies the three core aspects of the doctrine of the mean. First, virtue, like health, is produced and preserved by avoiding extremes. Second, virtue is a mean relative to us. Third, each virtue is a mean between two vices, one of excess and one of deficiency.

It is no easy matter to hit the mean but Aristotle has some general advice to offer those who are aiming at, trying to observe, the mean: “What is necessary first in aiming at the mean is to avoid that extreme which is the more opposed to the mean. Since of the two extremes one is a more serious error than the other, and since hitting the mean accurately is hard, the second-best thing… is to take the lesser of the evils” (Source: History of Philosophy Quarterly 4/3, July 1987).

The golden mean represents a balance between extremes or vices. For example, courage is the middle between one extreme of deficiency (cowardness) and the other extreme of excess (recklessness).

The mean as concerns fear and confidence is courage: those that exceed in fearlessness are foolhardy, while those who exceed in fear are cowardly.

The mean in respect to certain pleasures and pains is called temperance, while the excess is called profligacy. Deficiency in this matter is never found, so this sort of person does not have a name .

In the matter of giving and earning money, the mean is liberality, excess and deficiency are prodigality and miserliness. But both vices exceed and fall short in giving and earning in contrary ways: the prodigal exceeds in spending, but falls short in earning; the miser exceeds in earning, but falls short in spending.

With respect to honor and disgrace, the mean is “high-mindedness,” the excess might be called vanity, and the deficiency might be called humility or small-mindedness. . .

The importance of the golden mean is that it re-affirms the balance needed in life. It remains puzzling how this ancient wisdom, known before Aristotle re-introduced it, (it is present in the myth of Icarus, in a Doryc saying carved in the front of the temple at Delphi: “Nothing in Excess,” in the teachings of Pythagoras, Socrates and Plato) can be so forgotten and neglected in the modern society.




Aristotle (384-322).-

Aristotle (384-322).-




♠Read Aristotle´s Nicomachean Ethics (Full PDF Version):

Topics of this post correspond to Pages 22 /33 (Book I) & 34/53 (Book II): 

Click o the cover book to read "Nicomachean Ethics" by Aristotle.-

Click on the cover book to read “Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle.-


♠Nota a los lectores en castellano:

Para leer artículos sobre Aristóteles los remito al siguiente listado:

Hacer click aquí.

Como autora del blog me reservo el derecho que me asiste discrecionalmente y me lleva a optar por el idioma inglés para publicar artículos, en este caso de filosofía. Tiene que ver con un interés absolutamente personal y con una comunidad de lectores asiduos y activos del blog cuyo idioma nativo es el inglés. También con una mayor vastedad de los temas en idioma inglés, cuando el blog ya cuenta con un considerable número de entradas en castellano, cuyos temas ya han sido abarcados en mayor o menor medida. Esto no implica que no se publiquen artículos en castellano. Los temas también definen el idioma en el que se publica.

Atentamente saludos, Aquileana.-



Links Post:

♠Immanuel  Kant: “The Categorical Imperative”:



For Kant the basis for a Theory of the Good lies in the intention or the will.  Those acts are morally praiseworthy that are done out of a sense of duty rather than for the consequences that are expected, particularly the consequences to self.  

Kant’s moral theory is, therefore, deontological: actions are morally right in virtue of their motives, which must derive more from duty  than from inclination. The word deontological comes from the Greek word deon, which means “duty”. Duty-based ethics are usually what people are talking about when they refer to “the principle of the thing”. Duty-based ethics teaches that some acts are right or wrong because of the sorts of things they are, and people have a duty to act accordingly, regardless of the good or bad consequences that may be produced.

The clearest examples of morally right action are precisely those in which an individual agent’s determination to act in accordance with duty overcomes her evident self-interest and obvious desire to do otherwise. But in such a case, Kant argues, the moral value of the action can only reside in a formal principle or “maxim,” the general commitment to act in this way because it is one’s duty. So he concludes that “Duty is the necessity to act out of reverence for the law.”

According to Kant, then, the ultimate principle of morality must be a moral law conceived so abstractly that it is capable of guiding us to the right action in application to every possible set of circumstances. This general law is called  categorical imperative.

Kant´s categorical imperative states that you should act in such a way that you can will that your act should be a universal law”

In the ethical system of Immanuel Kant, categorical imperative is an unconditional moral law that applies to all rational beings and is independent of any personal motive or desire. A maxim is an absolute moral statement; Kant stated that these had to be universalisable. When it  For example “do not murder” and in general the Ten Commandments. Universalisability is the ability to use a maxim everywhere, and by everyone so that the maxim is never broken.

 Just for the record, the Golden Rule is not the same than the Categorical Imperative. The Golden Rule’s focus only on the self. It is all about how one person would want other people to act towards that person. As to Kant’s Categorical Imperative, it focuses on all mankind. It is all about how all people would wish for all people to act towards everyone.

An example in the individual scope (Golden Rule) could be: “If I believe that homosexuality is inmoral and I condemn it, then I must accept the fact that if I engage in an homosexual act, I am inmoral as well, or I must abandon my previous belief”.

A categorical imperative  demands performance of an action for its own sake. It has the form: “Do something”. An absolute moral demand of this sort gives rise to familiar difficulties: since it expresses moral obligation with the perfect necessity that would directly bind any will uncluttered by subjective inclinations, the categorical imperative must be known a priori; yet it cannot be an analytic judgment. The supreme principle of morality must be a synthetic a priori proposition.

Constrained only by the principle of universalizability, the practical reason of any rational being understands the categorical imperative to be:

“Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”

That is, each individual agent regards itself as determining, by its decision to act in a certain way, that everyone (including itself) will always act according to the same general rule in the future

Kant argues that there can be four formulations of this principle:

The Formula of the Law of Nature: “Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature.”

The Formula of the End Itself: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.”

The Formula of Autonomy: “So act that your will can regard itself at the same time as making universal law through its maxims.”

The Formula of the Kingdom of Ends: “So act as if you were through your maxims a law-making member of a kingdom of ends.”

So it is in ethics as it is in law. The Categorical Imperative is devised by Kant to provide a formulation by which we can apply our human reason to determine the right, the rational thing to do, meaning our duty. 

In Kant´s “Critique of Practical Reason”, he employs the concept of the summum bonum (the supreme or highest good) to establish, or prove, the immortality of the soul, on the one hand, and the existence of God, as Creator, on the other.

The SummumBonum is the highest good that everyone (according to Kant) should strive towards.It is a conjunction between happiness and virtue. It is a reward for doing duty for duty’s sake. According to Kant in the “Critique of Practical Reason”, “the perfect agreement of the mind with the moral law is the supreme condition of the summum bonum” (Chapter 2, Part IV). Kant goes on to note that this “perfect agreement of the will with the moral law” is the same as “holiness,” a condition that cannot be achieved by any “rational being of the sensible world . . . at any moment of his existence” because perfection is something that no one can ever actually realize.


♠Categorical Imperative: Explanation:

Slideshare Feature

Click on the image above; linking to the Slideshare Feature.-


♠ How self love cannot be universalised: Four Examples given by Immanuel Kant in “Critique of Practical Reason” 

 (As pointed on the slideshare feature above):

Kant gave four examples of how self love cannot be universalised.

1º) First Example: A man wants to commit suicide but questions if this goes against a duty to himself.  

Explaining the First Example: The first example cannot be universal because one is always trying to improve one’s life while killing yourself does the opposite.

2º) Second Example: A man borrows money knowing he cannot pay it back despite promising to do so.  

Explaining the Second Example: The second example cannot be universalised because If everyone did this it would make the ideal of promises worthless.

3º) Third Example: A talented man decides to ignore his talent and does nothing to further himself, he also questions whether this is duty to himself. 

Explaining the Third Example: The Third example cannot be universalised because If no one used their talents there would be no doctors, detectives, scientists etc, society would fail.

4º) Fourth Example: One man is happy and flourishing in his life but doesn’t care about anyone else; he will not give other people help.  

Explaining the Fouth Example: The Fourth example cannot be universalised because there will come a point when he needs help, if everyone has the same attitude as him, no one would receive help.


Immanuel Kant (1724/1804).-

Immanuel Kant (1724/1804).-


♠A Short Introduction to Kant´s Categorical Imperative:

Click on the image above as it links to the video on Youtube.

Click on the image above as it links to the video on Youtube.


♠”What is Kant´s Categorical Imperative?”:

Click on the image above as it links to the slideshare feature.-

Click on the image above as it links to the slideshare feature.-


Immanuel  Kant´s  quotes on Morality:





♠Posts en Castellano sobre el Imperativo Categórico de Immanuel Kant:  Hacer click aquí (1) y acá (2)




♠Links Post: 


♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “Studies in Pessimism”:



Schopenhauer’s pessimism is the most well known feature of his philosophy, and he is often referred to as the philosopher of pessimism. Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision follows from his account of the inner nature of the world as aimless blind striving.

Because the will has no goal or purpose, the will’s satisfaction is impossible. The will objectifies itself in a hierarchy of gradations from inorganic to organic life, and every grade of objectification of the will, from gravity to animal motion, is marked by insatiable striving. In addition, every force of nature and every organic form of nature participates in a struggle to seize matter from other forces or organisms. Thus existence is marked by conflict, struggle and dissatisfaction.

The attainment of a goal or desire, Schopenhauer continues, results in satisfaction, whereas the frustration of such attainment results in suffering. Since existence is marked by want or deficiency, and since satisfaction of this want is unsustainable, existence is characterized by suffering. This conclusion holds for all of nature, including inanimate natures, insofar as they are at essence will. However, suffering is more conspicuous in the life of human beings because of their intellectual capacities. Rather than serving as a relief from suffering, the intellect of human beings brings home their suffering with greater clarity and consciousness. Even with the use of reason, human beings can in no way alter the degree of misery we experience; indeed, reason only magnifies the degree to which we suffer. Thus all the ordinary pursuits of mankind are not only fruitless but also illusory insofar as they are oriented toward satisfying an insatiable, blind will.

Since the essence of existence is insatiable striving, and insatiable striving is suffering, Schopenhauer concludes that nonexistence is preferable to existence. However, suicide is not the answer. One cannot resolve the problem of existence through suicide, for since all existence is suffering, death does not end one’s suffering but only terminates the form that one’s suffering takes. The proper response to recognizing that all existence is suffering is to turn away from or renounce one’s own desiring. In this respect, Schopenhauer’s thought finds confirmation in the Eastern texts he read and admired: the goal of human life is to turn away from desire. Salvation can only be found in resignation.


♠Arthur Schopenhauer´s Pessimism. Quotes:

“A man can be himself only so long as he is alone; and if he does not love solitude, he will not love freedom; for it is only when he is alone that he is really free”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Essays and Aphorisms”.-

“Mostly it is loss which teaches us about the worth of things”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Parerga and Paralipomena”.-

“Every miserable fool who has nothing at all of which he can be proud, adopts as a last resource pride in the nation to which he belongs; he is ready and happy to defend all its faults and follies tooth and nail, thus reimbursing himself for his own inferiority”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Essays and Aphorisms”.-


Arthur Schopenhauer (1788/1860).-

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788/1860).-


♠More Quotes by Schopenhauer regarding Pessimism: 






♠”Studies in Pessimism”. Chapter II: “On The Vanity Of Existence”(pags 18 to 22). Audiobook´s Reading :

Also check out “Studies in Pessimism”; the complete audiobook here


♠Read “Studies in Pessimism” (Complete Book):

Click on the book cover to read Schopenhauer´s  Essays .-

Click on the book cover to read Schopenhauer´s Essays .-




♠Nota Posts de Schopenhauer en Castellano: Hacer Click Aquí



♠Links post:


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