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Archive for the ‘Schopenhauer’ Category

►Greek Mythology: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

 guarda_griega1_2Cortege Dionysus

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Dionysus is best known in Greek mythology as the god of wine, but he has also been associated with peace, agriculture, law, civilization, and most especially, the theatre. In Thrace he was known as Eleutherios, “the Liberator,” or Liber Pater, “the Free One,” because he freed people through drunken ectasy

The place of origin of the Hellenic Dionysian Mysteries is unknown, but they almost certainly first came to Greece with the importation of wine, which is widely believed to have originated, in the West, around 6000 BC in one of two places, either in the Zagros Mountains (the borderlands of Mesopotamia and Persia, both with their own rich wine culture since then) or from the ancient wild vines on the mountain slopes of Libya / North Africa (the source of early Egyptian wine from around 2500 BC, and home of many ecstatic rites), quite probably from both

Wine probably also entered Greece over land from Asia Minor. But it was most likely in Minoan Crete that the eclectic ‘wine cult’, that would become the Dionysian Mysteries, first emerged

The basic principle beneath the original initiations, other than the seasonal death-rebirth theme supposedly common to all vegetation cults (such as the Osirian, which closely parallels the Dionysian), was one of spirit possession and atavism. This in turn was closely associated with the effects of the wine. The spirit possession involved the invocation of spirits by means of the bull roarer, followed by communal dancing to drum and pipe, with characteristic movements (such as the backward head flick) found in all trance inducing cults.

Unlike many trance cults however, the Dionysian rites were primarily atavistic, that is the participant was possessed by animal spirits and bestial entities, rather than intelligible divinities, and may even “transform into animals”. A practise preserved by the riteof the “goat and panther men” of the “heretical” Aissaoua Sufi cult of North Africa, and remembered in the satyrs and sileni of the Dionysian procession, and perhaps even the “bull man”, or Minotaur, of the chthonic Minoan labyrinth.

The purpose of this atavism is controversial, some see it simply as a Greek saturnalian catharsis, a ritualised release of repressed elements of civilised psychology, and temporary inversion, in order to preserve it, others see it as a return to the “chaotic” sources of being and essentially a reaction against civilisation, while yet others regard it as a magical connection with chthonic powers

In the late 1800s A.D., the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche elaborated the dichotomy Apollonian- Dionysian in his book “The Birth of Tragedy”, arguing that the Apollonian principal corresponded to the principium individuationis, the principal of individualization, a concept coined by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. This is because rational thought defines and thus compartmentalizes forms into different structures.

Nietzsche rather identified with the Dionysian principal that corresponded to Schopenhauer’s conception of Will, the principal of submerging oneself into a greater whole. Music, drunkenness, dancing, and madness were considered Dionysian characteristics because they apply to the instinctive, chaotic, and ecstatic side of the human mind. 

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“The Initiation Chamber”. Villa of The Mysteries. Pompeii. (79 CE).-

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►”Dyonisiac Frieze, Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii” (In English):

►”Pompeii: Villa dei Misteri” (In Italian):

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•Further Information: “The Villa of the Mysteries” or “Villa dei Misteri” is a well preserved ruin of a Roman Villa which lies some 400 metres northwest of Pompeii, southern Italy.

The Villa is named for the paintings in one room of the residence. This space is decorated with very fine frescoes, dated 79 B.C. Although the actual subject of the frescoes is hotly debated, the most common interpretation of the images is scenes of the initiation of a woman into a special cult of Dionysus, mystery cult  hat required specific rites and rituals to become a member.

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►Gallery: “Dionysian Mysteries”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
http://www.lost-history.com/mysteries.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_of_the_Mysteries
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dionysiac-frieze-villa-of-the-mysteries.html
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►Greek Mythology and Philosophy:

“The Dichotomy Apollonian -Dionysian”, according to Friedrich Nietzsche:

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Apollonian and Dionysian are terms used by Nietzsche in his book “The Birth of Tragedy” to designate the two central principles in Greek culture. 

Apollo was the son of zeus and Leto. Artemis was his twin sister. He was the greek god of prophecy, music, intellectual pursuits, healing, plague, and sometimes, the sun.

Writers often contrast the cerebral, beardless young Apollo with his half-brother, the hedonistic Dionysus.

As to Dionysus, he was the son of Zeus and Semele. Dionysus was the greek god of wine, agriculture, and fertility of nature. He was also related to mystery religions, such as those practised at Eleusis, being linked to ecstasy and initiation into secret rites.

Apollo, as the sun-god, represents light, clarity, and form, whereas Dionysus, as the wine-god, represents drunkenness and ecstasy.

The Apollonian, which corresponds to Schopenhauer’s principium individuationis (“principle of individuation”), is the basis of all analytic distinctions.

Everything that is part of the unique individuality of man or thing is Apollonian in character; all types of form or structure are Apollonian, since form serves to define or individualize that which is formed; thus, sculpture is the most Apollonian of the arts, since it relies entirely on form for its effect. Rational thought is also Apollonian since it is structured and makes distinctions.

The Dionysian, which corresponds to Schopenhauer’s conception of “Will”, is directly opposed to the Apollonian.

Drunkenness and madness are Dionysian because they break down a man’s individual character; all forms of enthusiasm and ecstasy are Dionysian, for in such states man gives up his individuality and submerges himself in a greater whole: music is the most Dionysian of the arts, since it appeals directly to man’s instinctive, chaotic emotions and not to his formally reasoning mind.

“Dionysian spirit” is defined in the philosophy of Nietzsche, as displaying creative-intuitive power as opposed to critical-rational power.

But, both of them, the Apollonian and the Dionysian are necessary in the creation of art. Without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. Although they are diametrically opposed, they are also intimately intertwined.

The Greek tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles, which Nietzsche considers to be among humankind’s greatest accomplishments, achieve their sublime effects by taming Dionysian passions by means of the Apollonian. Greek tragedy evolved out of religious rituals featuring a chorus of singers and dancers, and it achieved its distinctive shape when two or more actors stood apart from the chorus as tragic actors. The chorus of a Greek tragedy is not the “ideal spectator,” as some scholars believe, but rather the representation of the primal unity achieved through the Dionysian. By witnessing the fall of a tragic hero, we witness the death of the individual, who is absorbed back into the Dionysian primal unity. Because the Apollonian impulses of the Greek tragedians give form to the Dionysian rituals of music and dance, the death of the hero is not a negative, destructive act but rather a positive, creative affirmation of life through art.

Unfortunately, the golden age of Greek tragedy lasted less than a century and was brought to an end by the combined influence of Euripides and Socrates. Euripides shuns both the primal unity induced by the Dionysian and the dreamlike state induced by the Apollonian, and instead he turns the Greek stage into a platform for morality and rationality.

One of Nietzsche’s concerns in “The Birth of Tragedy” is to address the question of the best stance to take toward existence and the world. He criticizes his own age for being overly rationalistic, for assuming that it is best to treat existence and the world primarily as objects of knowledge, which is for him meaningless.

Greek tragedy as Nietzsche understands it cannot coexist in a world of Socratic rationality.

Tragedy gains its strength from exposing the depths that lie beneath our rational surface, whereas Socrates insists that we become fully human only by becoming fully rational.

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Dionysus.-

Dionysus (on the right side).-

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Check out: “The Birth of Tragedy (1872), by Friedrich Nietzsche”:

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Click on the cover book to read it.-

Click on the cover book to read it.-

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"Apollo Playing the Lyre" by Charles Philippe Lariviere.-

“Apollo Playing the Lyre” by Charles Philippe Lariviere (1825/1830).-

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"Dionysus drunk by Tsarouchis (1972).-

“Dionysus drunk by Yannis Tsarouchis (1972).-

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►Links Post:
http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/nietzsche/section1.rhtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Birth_of_Tragedy
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Dionysus.html
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Apollon.html
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/apollomyth/ig/Apollo/Apollo-and-Other-Olympian-Gods.htm
http://mythologian.net/apollo-the-god-of-sun-music-prophecy-and-healing/

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♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On The Concepts of Will and Free Will”:

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 / 1860).-

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 / 1860).-

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I) ♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Will”:

Schopenhauer is an idealist, meaning that to him matter does not exist independent of a mind there to perceive it. 

For Schopenhauer the world is driven by an all-pervading and inescapable will. The Will is the thing-in-itself. Schopenhauer’s Will is not the individual psychological will, but a universal metaphysical principle, spaceless and timeless and uncaused, 

All actions taken are ultimately derived from this omnipresent drive of survival that he believes can be found everywhere around us. We may perceive and control our individual, conscious actions, but they are always being pushed, unconsciously by this will.

The Will, according to Schopenhauer, manifests itself in the individual as impulse, instinct and craving.

Organic attraction and mechanical pull are both to Schopenhauer expressions of the Will-to-live. This Will tries falsely to overcome death by self-reproduction. This is why, says Schopenhauer, the sexual urge is so strong in all beings.

The world itself is a representation of this will, therefore the will is the reality behind the world of appearances. However, the catch is that each manifestation of the will that we recognize is exactly that, particular manifestations, not the world “in itself.” Therefore while we are blindly driven by this force, we are separate from it, or better put, we are separate from a real conscious understanding of it and what it causes us to do.

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♠II) Arthur Schopenhauer: “On the Concept of Free Will”:

Schopenhauer largely rejected the idea of free will in the sense that actions are always determined by an unchanging character and incentives or motives.

There is a distinction made here between the freedom to will and the freedom to act. For Schopenhauer given the same circumstances each one of us would have the same will, so you really have no choice in the matter. This philosophy of free will is a sort of determinism with illusionary freedom. We think that we are responsible for our actions, but according to Schopenhauer, things could not have gone any differently, they were inevitable from the circumstances.

Arthur Schopenhauer’s concept of the Freedom of the Will can be summarized as follows:

→We can do as we will, but we cannot will as we will

→Character is determined by nature, not by the environment

One of Schopenhauer´s most famous quotes in his book “On the Freedom Of the Will (1839) is: “Man can do what he wills but he cannot will what he wills”.

Basically with these words he meant to say that we have a free will to a limited degree. We are driven but also restrained by our instincts. However, we are guided most of all by the existing customs and codes of morality that are current in our part of society.

Schopenhauer is against a code of morals that is strictly based on reason. This is another point where him and Kant are divergent. What is truly the good thing is not always the rational thing, and something truly bad can be made to seem rational given the circumstances. Therefore doing good is not an act of reason or divine law, it is just some people manage to see the world in a ethical light while others never will.

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♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “On Human Nature” (Complete Text):

Click above to read "On Human Nature", by Arthur Schopenhauer.-

Click above to read “On Human Nature”, by Arthur Schopenhauer.-

Click here to read Chapter III: “Free Will and Fatalism”.-_______________________________________________________________________________________________

♠Enlaces en Castellano relacionados con este Post:

(Hacer Click sobre el título respectivo)

Arthur Schopenhauer: “Ensayo Sobre el Libre Albedrío” o “Ensayo Sobre la Libertad de la Voluntad Humana”.-

Arthur Schopenhauer: “La Arrogancia del que, por tener Libre Albedrío, cree que es Libre”.-

Arthur Schopenhauer: “El Amor y Otras Pasiones. La Libertad”.-

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♠Links Post:  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Freedom_of_the_Will 
http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/schopenhauer/arthur/human/chapter3.html 
http://losenotaminute.blogspot.com.ar/2012/05/schopenhauer-and-free-will.html 
http://www.skepticink.com/tippling/2013/04/11/schopenhauer-on-free-will/ 
http://freewill.typepad.com/genetics/2007/05/schopenhauers_f.html

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♠Last But Not Least: Blog Nomination to Versatile Blogger Award / Nominación al Premio Versatile Blogger Award:

Thanks to the Blog / Gracias al Blog Los Sentidos de La Vida:

Click above/ Hacer cCick arriba.-

Click above / Hacer Click arriba.-

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♠Thanks Sylvester (AKA Poet Bro) for being there with your words and good vibes earlier today (February 24th). 

♠A Poem: “For A Friend”. By Sylvester L. Anderson:

Click on the image to visit Sylvester´s blog.-

Click on the Image to visit Sylvester´s blog.-

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♠Arthur Schopenhauer: “Studies in Pessimism”:

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Schopenhauer’s pessimism is the most well known feature of his philosophy, and he is often referred to as the philosopher of pessimism. Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision follows from his account of the inner nature of the world as aimless blind striving.

Because the will has no goal or purpose, the will’s satisfaction is impossible. The will objectifies itself in a hierarchy of gradations from inorganic to organic life, and every grade of objectification of the will, from gravity to animal motion, is marked by insatiable striving. In addition, every force of nature and every organic form of nature participates in a struggle to seize matter from other forces or organisms. Thus existence is marked by conflict, struggle and dissatisfaction.

The attainment of a goal or desire, Schopenhauer continues, results in satisfaction, whereas the frustration of such attainment results in suffering. Since existence is marked by want or deficiency, and since satisfaction of this want is unsustainable, existence is characterized by suffering. This conclusion holds for all of nature, including inanimate natures, insofar as they are at essence will. However, suffering is more conspicuous in the life of human beings because of their intellectual capacities. Rather than serving as a relief from suffering, the intellect of human beings brings home their suffering with greater clarity and consciousness. Even with the use of reason, human beings can in no way alter the degree of misery we experience; indeed, reason only magnifies the degree to which we suffer. Thus all the ordinary pursuits of mankind are not only fruitless but also illusory insofar as they are oriented toward satisfying an insatiable, blind will.

Since the essence of existence is insatiable striving, and insatiable striving is suffering, Schopenhauer concludes that nonexistence is preferable to existence. However, suicide is not the answer. One cannot resolve the problem of existence through suicide, for since all existence is suffering, death does not end one’s suffering but only terminates the form that one’s suffering takes. The proper response to recognizing that all existence is suffering is to turn away from or renounce one’s own desiring. In this respect, Schopenhauer’s thought finds confirmation in the Eastern texts he read and admired: the goal of human life is to turn away from desire. Salvation can only be found in resignation.

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♠Arthur Schopenhauer´s Pessimism. Quotes:

“A man can be himself only so long as he is alone; and if he does not love solitude, he will not love freedom; for it is only when he is alone that he is really free”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Essays and Aphorisms”.-

“Mostly it is loss which teaches us about the worth of things”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Parerga and Paralipomena”.-

“Every miserable fool who has nothing at all of which he can be proud, adopts as a last resource pride in the nation to which he belongs; he is ready and happy to defend all its faults and follies tooth and nail, thus reimbursing himself for his own inferiority”. Arthur Schopenhauer, “Essays and Aphorisms”.-

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Arthur Schopenhauer (1788/1860).-

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788/1860).-

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♠More Quotes by Schopenhauer regarding Pessimism: 

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♠”Studies in Pessimism”. Chapter II: “On The Vanity Of Existence”(pags 18 to 22). Audiobook´s Reading :


Also check out “Studies in Pessimism”; the complete audiobook here

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♠Read “Studies in Pessimism” (Complete Book):

Click on the book cover to read Schopenhauer´s  Essays .-

Click on the book cover to read Schopenhauer´s Essays .-

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♠Nota Posts de Schopenhauer en Castellano: Hacer Click Aquí

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♠Links post:
http://www.schopenhauer-web.org/links.html
http://www.iep.utm.edu/schopenh/#SH2b
http://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/2568404-studies-in-pessimism-the-essays-of-arthur-schopenhauer

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 A Propósito de Friedrich Nietzsche:

“Algunas Lecturas Sobre el Eterno Retorno”:

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Nietzsche habría pensado el eterno retorno en dos planos. Un plano transmoral (o posmoral) y un plano ontológico. El primero meramente pensado y para ser pensado, incluso sentido. Así lo presenta en la formulación que le da en “La Gaya Ciencia”: “Imagina un demonio diciéndote que esta vida retornará eternamente”. En la enunciación transmoral Nietzsche parece intentar una desculpabilización de la existencia. Nietzsche, que en tanto filólogo, conocía muy bien la idea griega del retorno , está influido obviamente por esa idea. Pero su retorno difiere radicalmente del griego.

Además, Nietzsche que primero amó y luego detestó a Schöpenhauer, difícilmente pensara en un retorno de la identidad, tal como lo había pensado Schöpenhauer (expresado, fundamentalmente, en “El Mundo como Voluntad y Representación”). Para Schöpenhauer la forma de aparición de la voluntad es sólo el presente. Ya que pasado y porvenir existen únicamente para el concepto y por el encadenamiento de la conciencia, sometida al principio de la razón.

El retorno nietzscheano no sería entonces un retorno  de lo idéntico, como en los griegos (que lo postulaban en relación con su concepción circular del tiempo). Ni de un presente perpetuo, como en Schöpenhauer (que lo postula por una exigencia de su propio pensamiento). Es dable pensar que en algún momento, retornará un mundo sin individuaciones, un mundo sin moral.  En la interpretación de Deleuze, por ejemplo, no se trataría de un retorno de lo mismo, sino de lo diferente. Sólo la afirmación retornará, es decir, la diferencia. Para Nietzsche, el eterno retorno sólo es soportado cuando se han transmutado los valores, así define el eterno retorno como devenir; este devenir demuestra que este mundo carece de meta. El eterno retorno es una concepción no lineal del tiempo, a la cual se llega al saber al hombre como voluntad de poder. Esta voluntad de poder que va más allá de uno mismo, que está creando, está inmersa en el devenir.

Borges dedica un artículo especialmente a refutar esta doctrina del Eterno Retorno del filósofo alemán. Y lo hace en el texto  “La doctrina de los ciclos”, que aparece en su libro Historia de la Eternidad. Allí está citado Nietzsche, en uno de sus ensayos sobre “el eterno retorno de lo mismo”, en donde aparece una versión pseudo científica de esta doctrina, que es la que Borges ataca especialmente. El número de todos los átomos que componen el universo es, aunque desmesurado, finito, y solo capaz como tal de un número finito (aunque desmesurado también) de permutaciones. En un tiempo infinito, el número de las permutaciones posibles debe ser alcanzado, y el universo debe repetirse “.


 Para refutar esta idea, Borges se apropia de la teoría de los conjuntos de Georg Cantor. Según nuestro autor, Cantor destruye el fundamento de la tesis de Nietzsche. Este afirma la infinitud de los puntos del universo, hasta de un metro de universo o una fracción de metro. El roce de la teoría de Cantor con la teoría nietzscheana es fatal para Nietzsche, según Borges. “Si el universo consta de un número infinito de términos, es rigurosamente capaz de un número infinito de combinaciones -y la necesidad de un Regreso queda vencida. Queda su mera posibilidad, computable a cero” .

Dice Borges: “Desenterró la intolerable hipótesis griega de la eterna repetición y procuró deducir de esa pesadilla mental una ocasión de júbilo. Buscó la idea más horrible del universo y la propuso a la delectación de los hombres”. A Borges, la consecuente idea de “Superhombre”  le parecía la más horrible de todas. Nietzsche mismo nos advirtió que esta podía ser la peor de las ideas, precisamente desde el marco desde el nihilismo pasivo. Lo grande y lo pequeño se va a volver a repetir, sólo aquel que ama su destino puede aceptar la eterna repetición de las cosas. Sólo aquel “Superhombre” que tiene una relación activa, el creador, aquel que tiene voluntad de poder es capaz de cargar con el eterno retorno de las cosas. Para Nietzsche el eterno retorno sólo es soportado cuando se han transmutado todos los valores, así define el eterno retorno como devenir; sin embargo, para que los valores sean transmutados se necesita “una” voluntad de poder, que establecerá nuevos valores y les dará una nueva valorización a éstos, pero ya no en el trasmundo que daba fundamento a la vida (muerte de Dios), sino en una nueva y dionisíaca posición terrenal.-

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Friedrich Nietzsche Dixit: ∞“Imagina un demonio diciéndote que esta vida retornará eternamente”.∞

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Tonolec: “Indio Toba” (en el Teatro ND Ateneo de Buenos Aires):

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Links Post:
http://www.henciclopedia.org.uy/autores/AGenis/BorgesNietzsche.htm
http://lamuchachaquehalloelinfinito.blogspot.com/2006/11/borges-la-doctrina-de-los-ciclos_22.html 
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/05/27/sobre-frederich-nietzsche-los-extasis-del-eterno-retorno/
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Twitter: “¡Oh!, Friedrich Nietzsche me envió un Mensaje Directo”:

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Arthur Schopenhauer:

“La Arrogancia del que, por tener Libre Albedrío, cree que es Libre”:

“En la vejez se aprende mejor a esconder los fracasos; en la juventud, a soportarlos”. (Arthur Schopenhauer).-

Schopenhauer decía que cuando uno llegaba a cierta edad, y miraba a sus espaldas lo que había pasado, parecía que toda esa trama de experiencias que formaban la vida de uno, hubiera sido la composición de alguien. En definitiva, la libertad, cuya naturaleza consiste en la ausencia de toda necesidad, se postularía, para Schopenhauer como la independencia absoluta respecto de toda otra causa.  Admitido este Principio,  cada acción humana sería una especie de milagro inexplicable, un efecto sin causa alguna… Es esta ilusión la que promueve la voluntad humana como decidiendo ella misma, desprovista de Razón Suficiente, cuyas resoluciones pudieran inclinarse, sin más y de un modo indiferente hacia uno u otro lado… Pretender que un hombre, bajo el influjo de motivos idénticos, actúe de un modo o de otro absolutamente opuesto es equivalente a creer que un árbol, habiendo dado cerezas el año pasado produzca, luego castañas. El libre albedrío implica, entonces, una existencia sin esencia; es decir, algo que, al mismo tiempo es y no es nada,  lo cual constituye una evidente contradicción. El resultado puede enunciarse así: Todo lo que ocurre, ocurre necesariamente: Quid fit, necesario fit. En efecto, todo acontecimiento, sea éste grande o pequeño, resulta siempre absolutamente necesario. Es la Voluntad en el orden natural que ordenaba estos hechos, de una manera aparentemente lógica y estructurada , de manera que la libertad era una mera ilusión arrogante del Hombre…  En síntesis, el hombre no hace sino lo que quiere , y , sin embargo, lo vemos obrar siempre de un modo necesario.  La libertad, por lo que hemos expuesto, no puede residir en el operari (actuar), sino que debe residir en el esse (ser). La libertad no es atributo propio del carácter empírico, sino del carácter inteligible.-___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

“Ilustración de las nociones Schopenhauereanas Previas”:

“Comercial Megane II”:

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“La noción  de Voluntad en la naturaleza de Schopenhauer desde la Teoría del Caos”

(Pseudo/Aproximación):  

 

La Teoría del Caos permite deducir el orden subyacente que ocultan fenómenos aparentemente aleatorios. Se sabe que ecuaciones totalmente deterministas (como el set de Lorenz) presentan las siguientes características que definen el Caos: Son deterministas, es decir: – Existe una “ley” que gobierna la conducta del sistema – El fenómeno se puede expresar por “comprensión” en lugar de hacerlo por “extensión” .  Son muy sensibles a las condiciones iniciales:- Una desviación infinitesimal en el punto de inicio provoca una divergencia exponencial en la trayectoria del Espacio de Fase”… 

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COROLARIO DESDE SCHOPENHAUER:   

La libertad es un fenómeno que aparece como mera representación de libre albedrío humano, cuando, en realidad , no es otra cosa que la emanación de una Voluntad que nos excede y determina.  Nuestro destino está sometido a pequeñas condiciones iniciales aleatorias, tal como indica la teoría del caos. Llegados a este punto, cabe nombrar también la teoría de los seis grados de separación , que nos indica resumidamente que si escogemos a dos personas al azar en todo el mundo, estás están separadas solo seis grados , es decir, existen como máximo 6 personas entre medio para que se conozcan. La importancia de esta teoría reside en que, precisamente, las personas que desconocemos y que están a dos, tres, cuatro grados de nosotros son las que influyen directamente sobre nuestras vidas e inclusive pueden sin quererlo ni saberlo, controlar nuestras vidas. La teoría cuántica tiene relación con todo esto. Einstein afirmó que “Dios no juega a los dados”, defendiendo una visión más determinista y menos aleatoria de la ciencia.  O sea nosotros mismos ( las partículas) , definimos posición y velocidad siguiendo  leyes deterministas.  La Cuestión sería, como se preguntaba Pedro Calderón de la Barca: “¿Y yo con Más  Albedrío, tengo menos Libertad?”…      

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 Schopenhauer & Hegel:

“Podemos considerar nuestra vida como un inútil y molesto episodio en el felíz reposo de la Nada”.-

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Pingback Aquileana:
Arthur Schopenhauer: “Ensayo sobre el Libre Albedrío”.-
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/01/11/arthur-schopenhauerensayo-sobre-el-libre-albedrio/

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TOLSTOY DIXIT :

 

“When an apple has ripened and falls – why does it fall?  Is it because of gravity, because its stem withers, because it is dried by the sun, because it grows heavier, because the wind shakes it, or because the boy standing under the tree wants to eat it?”….

 

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Arthur Schopenhauer:

“Sufro, Luego Existo”:

Tradicionalmente se ha sostenido que el dolor solo existe negativamente como ausencia de bienestar; que el mal solo existe como ausencia del bien. Schopenhauer sostiene lo contrario: la maldad es lo que en realidad posee una existencia positiva. El dolor nace junto con el hombre, diríamos más bien, el hombre cuando llega al mundo nace al dolor. La miseria que llena la existencia humana no es accidental, es inherente, intrínseca a la vida. La vida es deseo siempre insatisfecho; la vida oscila como un péndulo entre el aburrimiento y el dolor, transitando de un lado a otro a través de breves momentos de alegría pasajera. El corazón del hombre nunca encuentra sosiego, es un pozo sin fondo que mientras más se intente llenar, más vacío se siente. Podemos resumir lo anterior de la siguiente forma:

1.- El hombre es contingente. 2.- El hombre es carencia. 3.- El deseo es una manifestación de la carencia. 4.- El deseo, sí se satisface, nos sume en el tedio, en el aburrimiento, en el hastío. 5.- El deseo, sí no se satisface, nos deja en el estado inicial, de necesidad, de carencia, pero ahora bajo la forma de frustración. 6.- El hastío, el aburrimiento, el tedio, y la frustración son dolor. 7.- El dolor nos hace desear. 8.- La vida es carencia, la carencia es deseo. 9.- Vivir es querer, el deseo es sufrimiento. 10.- Vivir es sufrir.

Ahora, que si ese sufrimiento, que es la única razón de ser de nuestra existencia, y que es la vida misma, tiene algún valor, no lo contesta rotundamente. 

Su respuesta en este caso está implicada íntimamente en muchos de sus textos, principalmente en el libro cuarto de El Mundo como Voluntad y Representación, y en un par de ensayos de los que componen el Parerga y Paralipómena, pero si uno se esmera puede encontrar una imagen que expone y resume con elocuencia su postura. Schopenhauer dice, que al igual que nos esmeramos en inflar una burbuja de jabón a pesar de que sabemos que tarde o temprano, debido a su condición efímera estallará, nos esmeramos en vivir.  Si en alguna forma, la vida humana es comparable con una burbuja de jabón, creo que podemos desprender que el único valor que, Schopenhauer considera, tiene la vida humana es el valor estético. Esto no significa que el arte sea el mejor camino de salvación para negar la voluntad de vivir; simplemente es una forma de expresar -al igual que: vivir es sufrir, y sufrir es la única finalidad de nuestra vida- que la vida es un fin en sí misma.-

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schopenhauer1

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788/1860).-

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Links Post:

http://www.cibernous.com/autores/schopenhauer/teoria/conclusiones.html

http://www.tomasabraham.com.ar/cajadig/caja4-1.html

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http://www.schopenhauer-web.org/index.html

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Scorpions: “Wind Of Change”:

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TSAHEYLU>>> Is the Na’vi word “tsaheylu” for  the connection or bond that the avatars have with all components of their environment…

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Metallica: “Nothing Else Matters”:

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