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►Greek Mythology: “Myrrha, Adonis and Persephone”(Myths and Interpretation):

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Myrrha

“Myhrra assisted by Lucina, the Goddess of Birth” by Jean de Court (1560).

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As we know from the previous postAdonis, Myrrha’s son, was raised up for both Goddess Persephone and Aphrodite.

Myrrha’s mother (being more precise, Adonis’ grandmother) had said that her daughter Myrrha was even more beautiful than Aphrodite herself . This was taken as offensive by the goddess of Beauty, who took revenge on that.

And in this case she took revenge of Myrrha’s mother by punishing her daughter, cursing Myrrha to fall in love and lust after her father, Cinyras.

Aphrodite appears here as a trouble maker. It is not the first time that she had looked for acknowledgment of her Beauty.

We must keep in mind here the Judgement of Paris in which Aphrodite offered Helen the most beautiful mortal woman, to Prince Paris of Troy, in exchange of that famous Golden apple labeled for the fairest one.

Retaking the preceding points, roman poet Ovid referred to Myrrha’s story in “Metamorphoses,” Book 10, lines 467-518.

Myrrha was the daughter of King Cinyras and Queen Cenchreis of Cyprus.

Myrrha felt attracted to her father. Knowing the love was forbidden she fought it as hard as she could to avoid her feelings. But as he couldn’t do so, she tried to kill herself. Just before she was goindg to commit suicide, Myrrha was discovered by her nurse who finally dissuaded her.

Myrrha confided her forbidden love to the nurse. The nurse tried to make Myrrha suppress the infatuation, but could not calm the girl. Finally the nurse agreed to help Myrrha get into her father’s bed if she promised that she would not try to kill herself again.

The women got their opportunity during a feast. Myrrha’s father, King Cinyras, was drunk in his bed. The nurse helped Myrrha to get into the bed by telling the King she was a young woman who was deeply in love with him.

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"Myrrha and Cinyras". Engraving by Virgil Solis for Ovid's Metamorphoses. Book X.

“Myrrha and Cinyras”. Engraving by Virgil Solis for Ovid’s “Metamorphoses”. Book X.

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In this manner, Myrrha and the nurse were able to deceive Cinyras. The affair lasted several nights in complete darkness to conceal Myrrha’s identity. One night, Cinyras wanted to know the identity of the girl with whom he had conducted the affair. Upon bringing in a lamp, and seeing his crime, the king drew his sword and attempted to kill her but she could escape.

After becoming pregnant of her own father Myrrha walked for nine months, lost in her own guilt.

Zeus finally took pity on her and transformed her into a myrrh tree.

When it came time for the birth, the Myrrh tree was somehow assisted by the birth goddess Lucina and six water nymphs. The tree appeared to wrench and finally cracked and delivered a baby boy, who would be later called Adonis.

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"The Birth of Adonis".  Engraving by Bernard Picart for Ovid's "Metamorphoses", Book X, 476-519.

“The Birth of Adonis”. Engraving by Bernard Picart for Ovid’s “Metamorphoses”.

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Aphrodite found the baby by the myrrh tree. She sheltered Adonis as a new-born baby and entrusted him to Persephone, the wife of Hades, who was the God of the Underworld

Aphrodite fell in love with the beautiful youth (possibly because she had been wounded by Eros’ arrow).

Persephone was also taken by Adonis’ beauty and refused to give him back to Aphrodite.

The dispute between the two goddesses was settled by Zeus 

Adonis was to spend one-third of every year with each goddess and the last third wherever he chose. Thus he decided to spend two-thirds of the year with Aphrodite.

Adonis’ death was tragic. He was killed (castrated) by a wild boar and died in Aphrodite’s arms, who sprinkled his blood with nectar from the anemone.  

It was said that Adonis’ blood turned the Adonis River, or Abraham River, red each spring.

After Adonis’ death, Aphrodite was so sad that Zeus decided to make Adonis immortal, allowing him to leave the underworld, to spend eight months of the year with Aphrodite.

He always, however, had to return to Hades and remain there the other four with Persephone.

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"The Death of Adonis" by Giuseppe Mazzuoli.(1709). The State Hermitage Museum

“The Death of Adonis” by Giuseppe Mazzuoli.(1709). The State Hermitage Museum

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Something worth highlighting here. There is a remarkable analogy between Adonis’ stay in both the Underworld and the World of the Living and Persephone’s myth, being also this Goddess one of the women (with Aphrodite) who raised Myrrha’s child, Adonis. 

This is shown specifically by the fact that Persephone (Demeter’s virgin daughter) was abducted by Hades, King of the Underworld.

According to the myth, Hades planted a meadow full of the narcissus flowers in order to entice Persephone. When she pulled on the flower, the Underworld opened up and Hades sprang up, carrying her off.

Later on, he gave Persephone a pomegranate. As she ate it, the fruit somehow cemented her marriage to Hades. Thus, she was bound to Hades for six months of each year, winter and autumn.

Persephone was allowed by his husband to join her mother in the World of Living, but only when summer and springtime arrived. 

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►”Greek Myths of Myrrha. Symbolism and Interpretation”:

Critical interpretation of this myth has considered Myrrha’s refusal of conventional sexual relations to have provoked her incest, with the ensuing transformation to tree as a silencing punishment. It has been suggested that the taboo of incest marks the difference between culture and nature and that Ovid’s version of Myrrha showed this.

Myrrha’ s love for his father may be related to the Electra complex, as proposed by Carl Jung.

The Electra complex is a girl’s psychosexual competition with her mother for possession of her father. In the course of her psychosexual development, the complex is the girl’s phallic phase, a boy’s analogous experience is the Oedipus complex.

As a psychoanalytic metaphor for daughter–mother psychosexual conflict, the Electra complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek Mythological character Electra, who plotted matricidal revenge with Orestes, her brother, against Clytemnestra, their mother, and Aegistus, their stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnon, their  father. This story is told by Sofocles in his tragedy and by Aeschylus in his trilogy “Oresteia” (Second tragedy, “The Libation Bearers”).

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►Greek Myths of Myhrra, Adonis and Persephone. Symbols and Meanings”:

•Myrrha, transformed into a Myrrh Tree: Punishment. Myrrha is transformed and rendered voiceless making her unable to break the Taboo of Incest. The word “myrrh” in Ancient Greek was related to the word μύρον (mýron), which became a general term for perfume.

•Myrrha having sexual relationships with her father: Myrrha’s behavior here might be linked to the hero archetype, known as “The Fall”. It describes a descent in action from a higher to a lower state of being, an experience which might involve defilement, moral imperfection, and/or loss of innocence. This fall is often accompanied by expulsion from a kind of paradise as penalty for disobedience and/or moral transgression.

•Myrrha feeling guilty while she is pregnant: This attitude might be associated with, was is known in the Hero Pattern, an Unhealable Wound. Here, the wound, physical or psychological, cannot be healed fully. This would also indicate a loss of innocence or purity. Often the wounds’ pain drives the sufferer to desperate measures of madness. 

•Adonis, castrated by a Wild Boar: Adonis Castration might be considered equal to a Father-Castration, performed by Cinyras (Myhrra’s father and Adonis’  father and grandfather at the same time).

Castration is here performed as an extreme punishment which leads to death. It also entrains the fact that Adonis won’t be able to have sons or daughters with his substitute mothers (Aphrodite and/or Perspehone).

The symbology of Wild Boar is that of truth, courage and confrontation.

In some native Indian tribes Wild Boar was used as a way to teach young braves how to be honest and find their courage when they told a lie to the tribe.

•Aphrodite sprinkling Adonis’ blood with nectar from the anemone: Anemone blossom stories are mostly about death – that’s why its blossom is often liken with being forsaken or left behind. In the Greek version of Adonis’ death, the Anemone is a plant that symbolizes unfading love. 

For the Christian version of the meaning of anemones, it’s a symbol of the blood that Jesus Christ shed on the cross.  That’s the reason why you’ll see a bunch of anemones on several paintings of the crucifixion.

•Adonis’ death and resurrection: The most common of all situational archetypes, Death and Rebirth grow out of the parallel between the cycle of nature and life. The cycle of death and rebirth was linked with the regeneration of vegetation and the crop seasons in ancient Greece. Besides, this myth is related to the perennial nature of beauty, as Adonis died only to be reborn in the underworld.

•Adonis’ blood, which turned the Adonis River, or Abraham River, red each spring: Red (Blood and river colors) Red represents sacrifice; violent passion, disorder, sunrise, birth, fire, emotion, wounds, death, sentiment, mother. Rivers/Streams: They represent life force and life cycle

•Adonis resurrected, spend his time with both Persephone in the Underworld and Aphrodite in The World of Living: Beyond the fact that both Goddesses raised Adonis, this metaphor might be linked to the double dichotomy Light-Life / Darkness-Death. In which Light usually suggests hope, renewal, life and intellectual illumination; whilst darkness implies the unknown, death, ignorance, or despair.

It might be also related to the opposites Hell (Underworld)/Heaven: Hell represents the diabolic forces that inhabit the universe and heaven the God Forces.

•Persephone eating the pomegranate that Hades gave her: In this myth, the pomegranate is related to the changing of seasons and might be also considered as a symbol of indivisibility of marriage. Seasons: Spring: It represents Birth and New Beginnings. Summer: Associated to maturity and Knowledge. Autumn: Linked to Decline, nearing Death, growing old. Winter: Representing Death, sleep, hibernation.

•Persephone’s realms: The Underworld: Black space. Black color: It represents darkness, chaos, mystery, the unknown, death, the unconscious and evil.

•Persephone released from the Underworld by HadesAs Persephone came back to the Living World to spend six months of each year with her mother Demeter, the flowers and crops grow great. 

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►Links Post:
http://www.uffizi.org/artworks/la-primavera-allegory-of-spring-by-sandro-botticelli/
http://www.iconos.it/le-metamorfosi-di-ovidio/libro-x/venere-e-adone/immagini/21-venere-e-adone/
http://spiritsymbols.blogspot.com.ar/2013/10/wild-boar.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrrha
http://ancientsites.com/aw/Post/1260902
http://www.squidoo.com/pomegranatesymbolism
http://froggey.wordpress.com/2014/03/27/the-pomegranate-the-righteous-fruit/
http://www.auntyflo.com/flower-dictionary/anemone
http://www.goddessgift.com/goddess-myths/greek_goddess_persephone.htm
http://www.paleothea.com/SortaSingles/Persephone.html
http://mythologyinfo.webs.com/theseasons.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electra_complex
http://www.muhsd.k12.ca.us/cms/lib5/CA01001051/Centricity/Domain/520/English%203/Unit%201%20–%20Early%20American%20Lit/ArchetypesandSymbols.pdf
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►Icarus´Fall: “The Myth. Symbolism and Interpretation”:

"Icarus and Daedalus", by Charles Paul Landon

“Icarus and Daedalus”, by Charles Paul Landon.-

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Icarus´Fall: “The Myth”: 

Icarus’s father Daedalus, an athenian  craftsman, built the Labyrinth for King Minos  of Crete near his palace at Knossos  to imprison the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster born of his wife and the Cretan bull. Minos imprisoned Daedalus himself in the labyrinth because he gave Minos’ daughter, Ariadne, a or ball of string in order to help  Theseus , the enemy of Minos, to survive the Labyrinth and defeat the Minotaur.

Daedalus fashioned two pairs of wings out of wax and feathers for himself and his son. Daedalus tried his wings first, but before taking off from the island, warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, nor too close to the sea, but to follow his path of flight.

If he were to do so, Daedalus explained, the wax that held his wings together would melt, rendering them useless, and Icarus would fall from the sky to his death.

Icarus, however, was overcome by the incredible feeling of flight. He was so taken by the experience, that he flew higher and higher. He flew so high that he got perilously close to the sun. Just as his father warned him would happen, the wax on his wings melted into a useless liquid. The wings fell to pieces and Icarus fell from the sky. The water into which Icarus is said to have fallen is near Icaria, a Grecian Island in the Aegean Sea. The island is named for the legendary flying man. Icaria is southwest of the island of Samos.

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SlideShare: “Daedalus and Icarus”:

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

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Icarus´Fall: “Symbolism and Interpretation”:

Symbols are insightful expressions of human nature.They are the external, lower expressions of higher truths and represent deep intuitive wisdom impossible by direct terms.

Joseph Campbell defined symbols as “giving expression to what is absolutely “unknowable” by  intellect”.

In the psychiatric mind features of disease were perceived in the shape of the pendulous emotional ecstatic-high and depressive-low of bipolar disorder. 

Henry Murray  having proposed the term Icarus complex, apparently found symptoms particularly in mania where a person is fond of heights, fascinated by both fire and water, narcissistic and observed with fantastical cognitio.

The myth of Icarus´moral is to “take the middle way” by warning against heedless pursuit of instant gratification.

In this sense it highlights the greek idea of  Sophrosyne (Greek: σωφροσύνη), which etymologically means healthy-mindedness and from there self-control or moderation guided by knowledge and balance. 

As Aristotle held, as shown in the post , “Aristotle´s Ethical Theory: On The Concept of Virtue and Golden Mean”, virtue is  a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount.

The flight of Icarus could be interpreted as a lesson in the value of moderation. The danger in flying “too high” (i.e. melting of the wax wings) or in flying “too low” (i.e. weighting down the wings by sea-water spray) were advocations for one to respect one’s limits and to act accordingly.

The moral of this myth could be also linked to Plato´s analogy of the divided line, in which the Sun symbolizes the highest Form (Idea of God). Therefore according to this perspective, Icarus has flown too high . He tried to become wiser than Gods whilst achieving Knowledge and, as he defied the godess,  he was punished for that reason.

A similar interpretation is found in Plato´s myth of Phaethon, as it appears in his elderly dialogue “Timaeus”.

Moreover and going further, considering Plato´s allegory of the cave, Icarus could be linked to the  escaped prisoner, who represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the cave (labyrinth).

Icarus´s myth may also be related to Plato´s analogy of the chariot. When flying high with his waxed wings, Icarus´ chariot  was driven by the obstinated black horse, which represents man’s appetites. The fact of disobeying Daedalus´advice proves that his rational part of the soul which should rule over appetites wasn´t strong  and determined enough to do so. In other words, the black horse beats the rational charioteer .

Icarus’ age is an aspect of the myth that deserves a mention here, for it is a characteristic of the period of adolescence to impulsively follow the appetite for life, to rush into the unknown adventure, to chase dreams, to follow temptation and not to heed warnings of danger.-

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"The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus" by Merry-Joseph Blondel

“The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus” by Merry-Joseph Blondel

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"The Lament for Icarus" by H. J. Draper.-

“The Lament for Icarus” by H. J. Draper.-

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Icarus´Fall: Paintings:

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 Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icarus
http://www.shmoop.com/daedalus-icarus/myth-text.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophrosyne
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaethon
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2007/08/05/icaro/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/01/25/aristotles-ethical-theory-on-the-concepts-of-virtue-and-golden-mean/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/platos-phaedrus-the-allegory-of-the-chariot-and-the-tripartite-nature-of-the-soul/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/03/platos-republic-the-allegory-of-the-cave-and-the-analogy-of-the-divided-line/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/01/21/andre-comte-sponville-el-mito-de-icaro-tratado-de-la-deseperanza-y-de-la-felicidad/

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►”Happy Easter 2014″:

Best Wishes, Aquileana :P

Happy-Easter

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

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In the dialogue “Phaedrus”, Plato presents the allegory of the chariot to explain the tripartite nature of the human soul or psyche. 

The chariot is pulled by two winged horses, one mortal and the other immortal.

The mortal, black horse is deformed and obstinate. Plato describes the horse as a “crooked lumbering animal, put together anyhow… of a dark color, with grey eyes and blood-red complexion; the mate of insolence and pride, shag-eared and deaf, hardly yielding to whip and spur.”

The inmortal, white horse, on the other hand, is noble and game, “upright and cleanly made… his color is white, and his eyes dark; he is a lover of honor and modesty and temperance, and the follower of true glory; he needs no touch of the whip, but is guided by word and admonition only.”

→In the driver’s seat is the charioteer, tasked with reining in these disparate steeds, guiding and harnessing them to propel the vehicle with strength and efficiency. The charioteer’s destination is the ridge of heaven, beyond which he may behold the Forms, Truth and absolute Knowledge. These essences nourish the horses’ wings, keeping the chariot in flight.

The charioteer joins a procession of gods, led by Zeus, on this trip into the heavens.

The ride is turbulent. The white horse wishes to rise, but the dark horse attempts to pull the chariot back towards the earth. As the horses pull in opposing directions, and the charioteer attempts to get them into sync, his chariot bobs above the ridge of heaven .

If the charioteer is able to behold the Forms, he gets to go on another revolution around the heavens. But if he cannot successfully pilot the chariot, the horses’ wings wither from lack of nourishment, or break off when the horses collide and attack each other, or crash into the chariots of others.

 When the chariot plummets to earth, the horses lose their wings, and the soul becomes embodied in human flesh. The degree to which the soul falls, and the “rank” of the mortal being it must then be embodied in is based on the amount of Truth it beheld while in the heavens.

The degree of the fall also determines how long it takes for the horses to regrow their wings and once again take flight. Basically, the more Truth the charioteer beheld on his journey, the shallower his fall, and the easier it is for him to get up and get going again.

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The Tripartite Nature of the Soul and the Allegory of the Chariot

 Plato conceives of the soul as having (at least) three parts:

  1. A rational part (the part that loves truth and knowledge, which should rule over the other parts of the soul through the use of reason)→ The Charioteer represents man’s Reason
  2. A spirited part (which seeks glory, honor, recognition and victory) →The white horse represents man’s spirit (thymos:θύμος).
  3. An appetitive part (which desires food, drink, material wealth and sex) →The black horse represents man’s appetites.

Worth noting: In the dialogue “The Republic”, Plato states that justice will be that condition of the soul in which each of these three parts “does its own work,” and does not interfere in the workings of the other parts (Check out this post: “Plato’s “The Republic”: “On the Concept of  Justice”).

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”:

Click on the image above to read the dialogue "Phaedrus" by Plato.-

Click on the image above to read the dialogue “Phaedrus” by Plato.-

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Slideshare: Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

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Links Post:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ancient-soul/#3.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chariot_Allegory
http://outre-monde.com/2010/09/27/platos-metaphors-the-chariot-allegory/
http://www.english.hawaii.edu/criticalink/plato/guide6.html
http://www.john-uebersax.com/plato/plato3.htm
http://www.scandalon.co.uk/philosophy/plato_tripartite_soul.htm

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♠Joseph Campbell: “El Héroe de las Mil Caras”/ “The Hero with a Thousand Faces” & 

Christy Birmingham: “Caminos hacia la Iluminación” / “Pathways to Illumination” (Poetry Book):

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♣Breve Reseña Explicativa: 

“El héroe de las mil caras” es un libro publicado en 1949 por el mitógrafo estadounidense Joseph Campbell que alude al tema del viaje del héroe, un patrón narrativo presente en  historias, mitos y leyendas  populares.

Según Campbell, el héroe suele pasar a través de ciclos o aventuras similares en todas las culturas; resumido en la tríada: Separación/ Iniciación/ Retorno.
♣Los doce estadios del Viaje del Héroe.

  1. Mundo ordinario – El mundo normal del héroe antes de que la historia comience.
  2. La llamada de la aventura – Al héroe se le presenta un problema, desafío o aventura
  3. Reticencia del héroe o rechazo de la llamada – El héroe rechaza el desafío o aventura, principalmente por miedo al cambio.
  4. Encuentro con el mentor o ayuda sobrenatural – El héroe encuentra un  mentor que lo hace aceptar la llamada y lo informa y entrena para su aventura o desafío.
  5. Cruce del primer umbral – El héroe abandona el mundo ordinario para entrar en el mundo especial o mágico
  6. Pruebas, aliados y enemigos – El héroe se enfrenta a pruebas, encuentra aliados y confronta enemigos, de forma que aprende las reglas del mundo especial.
  7. Acercamiento – El héroe tiene éxitos durante las pruebas.
  8. Prueba difícil o traumática – La crisis más grande de la aventura, de vida o muerte.
  9. Recompensa – El héroe se ha enfrentado a la muerte, se sobrepone a su miedo y ahora gana una recompensa.
  10. El camino de vuelta – El héroe debe volver al mundo ordinario.
  11. Resurrección del héroe – Otra prueba donde el héroe se enfrenta a la muerte y debe usar todo lo aprendido.
  12. Regreso con el elixir – El héroe regresa a casa con el elíxir y lo usa para ayudar a todos en el mundo ordinario.

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Etapas del Viaje del Héroe.

Etapas del Viaje del Héroe.

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♣Sobre la Naturaleza Iniciática del Viaje Arquetípico del Héroe:

El viaje ha forjado héroes y heroínas desde tiempos inmemoriales. Estos viajes han sido considerados como viajes iniciáticos, es decir que acarrean una transformación y un aprendizaje para quien los realiza. La persona es iniciada en el uso de potencialidades interiores que ignoraba poseer.

Algunos de ellos han sido realmente famosos en la historia: Gilgamesh, el héroe de la epopeya sumeria, que emprende un viaje en busca de la planta que le dará la inmortalidad.  Jasón, que lideró a los argonautas en busca del vellocino de oro. Moisés, quien dirigió el éxodo del pueblo hebreo hacia la tierra prometida. Eneas, que encabezó el exilio depués de la caída de Troya. Odiseo, que emprende un viaje de regreso al hogar, al amor (esposa) y a la familia.

Hay otros héroes como Marco Polo o Cristóbal Colón, quienes fueron en busca de otras tierras. Hay viajes netamente simbólicos  como los que hicieron el mismo Ulises o  Dante, cuando descendieron al infierno.

Para realizar este viaje el héroe lleva a cabo un proceso de transformación denominado “iniciático” porque el héroe se inicia en pruebas, disciplinas y conocimientos, e incrementa las potencialidades de su psique. Este modelo es arquetípico  y común en la mayoría de las culturas.
Algunos autores actualmente  ilustran la típica progresión del héroe como el cono de una espiral tridimensional, en la que es posible avanzar aunque muchas veces nos movamos en círculos hacia atrás.
Cada etapa tiene su propia lección para impartirnos, y nos reencontramos con situaciones que nos revierten a etapas previas, de modo que podamos aprender y rever las lecciones en nuevos niveles de complejidad intelectual y emocional y con mayor sutileza. (Numerológicamente cada 9 años atravesamos por el mismo estadio).
En otro sentido la reformulación del Viaje del Héroe desde una perspectiva de Cheer- Up Leading, o de Liderazgo contempla dinámicamente una versión más accesible en las cuales el viaje supone abandonar una zona de relativa confortabilidad o estabilidad para afrontar desafíos. Como el viaje es circular el ciclo tiende a repetirse.
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Reformulación práctica del Ciclo del héroe. Hacer Click sobre la imagen para consultar la página web respectiva.

Reformulación práctica del Ciclo del héroe. Hacer click sobre la imagen para consultar la página web respectiva.

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Joseph John Campbell (1904/1987).-

Joseph John Campbell (1904/1987).-

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From Campbell´s Book: "Pathways to Bliss: Mythology and Personal Transformation".-

From Campbell´s Book: “Pathways to Bliss: Mythology and Personal Transformation”.-

♣DESCARGAS♣ “Pathways to Bliss”  & “El Héroe de las Mil Caras” :
Hacer click sobre la imagen  para descargar el libro.

Hacer click sobre la imagen para descargar el libro (En Inglés).

Hacer click sobre la imagen para descargar el libro. (En Castellano)

Hacer click sobre la imagen para descargar el libro. (En Castellano)

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♣English Section: “A Review Based On Campbell´s Hero´s Jouney:”

“Aquileana´s review on Christy Birmingham´s  Book Pathways to Illumination”:

Click on the picture above to read this an other reviews.

Click on the picture above to read all the reviews.

“Pathways to Illumination” follows the experiences of a woman, since the ending of a quite traumatic relationship, who goes through different phases.

These phases could be related with the “Hero´s Journey” phases identified by Joseph Campbell as appearing in myths and psychological development.

It is worth noting that sociologists nowadays tend to deviate from the traditional pattern of classic hero, in favor of a more dynamic version.

Some of the newest interpretations sustain that the hero (protagonist) is first and foremost a symbolic representation of the person who experiences the story while reading, listening or watching; the relevance of the hero to the individual relies a great deal on how much similarity there is between the two.

I had this sense while I read Birmingham´s book.

Although the book is tied in parts with Christy Birmingham´s own experiences, she points out in the introduction that “it is not a memoir”, but rather a cathartic experience of growth and struggle. Therefore, the book´s effects go beyond the autobiographical frame…

The first two chapters of “Pathways to illumination”, “The Toxic Us”  and “So You Left” reveal moments when the woman and the male are still partners, followed by the end of the relationship, when the man leaves her.

Those two chapters could be related with Campbell´s phase in which:  The heroine passes the first threshold, meaning she is now committed to her inner journey and there’s no turning back.

One of the poems that exemplifies it is “Broken Joints”, where Birmingham says, “Only I do not know the vocabulary yet/ For what broke in your mind/ A double-jointed chaos that stands alert behind your smile/ How do I describe the emptiness of my mind?”

We also identify the pattern of the heroine´s phase in which she encounters challenges and faces enemies as part of her training.

As an example, we can point to the poem “A Different Place”: “Here is far from where I imagined my/ Leaves would hang./ I do not understand how I can still have life/ Given I do not possess my own roots”.

In the next sections of “Pathways to Illumination”, we follow the main character as she spirals into darkness, begins treatment, and tries to find herself.

One of these sections is “Depression”. This section relates with the Campbell´s heroine phase “Approach to the Inmost Cave”, when the heroine comes at last to a dangerous place, often deep underground.

caqTo quote Birmingham´s poem, related with this stage, we can refer to the poem “Heavy Shadow”, where she writes: 

“Speak truth to my tears/ Shed the heavy shadow/ Gaining weight with each movement/ And tell me that tomorrow will be easier for me.”

The following section “Treatment” may associate with Campbell´s phase in which the heoine endures the supreme Ordeal.

This is the moment when the main character touches bottom. She faces the critical possibility of death. She appears to die, and then be born again.

As a poetic example here we can quote the poem “When Life Entered Me”, particularly the following verses: “Life came down the hallway with a swagger/ Although I only saw the shadow after/ The third act./ I must have been in bed at the time.

The section “Glimmers of Hope” relates with the pattern of heroine´s stage in which she seizes the reward or treasure he’s come seeking after, after having survived death.

To give an example is Birmingham’s poem: “My Legacy Wilting”. In the poem, Birmingham´s heroine says: “Your Footprints are everywhere but/ So is the sign that bears one shape and/ One word: Trespassing./ My heart closes like a steel gate to you now.”

Christy Birmingham.-

Christy Birmingham.-

On the other hand; the last chapter “New Growth” can link with the last stage of Campbell’s theory, the Resurrection, which occurs  when the heroine emerges from the special world, transformed by her experience.

As an example of this phase, we can highlight Birmingham´s poem  ”Drizzle Me”: ” I am permanently under new ownership/ In a daisy field/ Of my own doing/ And the thorns are miles away / I welcome the shapes of blue skies and aspirations.”

The book follows the Pathways to illumination of a woman who still held pieces of hope even after her life shattered around her. Sometimes things happen for elusive causes, responding to a general pattern of inner self-growth… And maybe this is the case… This is Birmingham´s heroic journey form darkness to light. And as for  us readers, her pathways also points to the spotlight, given that her book is a poetic message of struggle, redemption and  hope…

///Posted by Amalia Pedemonte on 27AUG13. Format: ePUB. Price: Reasonable. Recommend to others: Yes. 5 Stars///.-

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♣Meet Christy Birmingham at her Blog: 

Click on the image above to visit Christy´s website.-

Click on the image above to visit Christy´s website.-

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♠Bonustrack: “Christy Birmingham reads her poem I Stand Here“:

Click on the image above to listen to Christy´s reading of her poem.-

Click on the image above to listen to Christy´s reading of her poem.-

istand1b

"I Stand Here", by Christy Birmingham.-

“I Stand Here”, by Christy Birmingham. At “Poetic Parfait”-

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♠Bonustrack: “Christy Birmingham reads her poem If we go Back”:

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"If We Go Back". By Christy Birmingham. At Poetic Parfait.-

“If We Go Back”. By Christy Birmingham. At Poetic Parfait.-

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♠”Christy Birmingham´s Interview on the Radio” (Authors on the Air):

Click on the image above to listen to the interview.-

Click on the image above to listen to the interview.-

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Links Post: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_h%C3%A9roe_de_las_mil_caras 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monomyth 
http://linkprosperity.com/A-Heros-Journey 
http://www.equilibrepnl.com/viaje-del-heroe/
http://redmundpro.com/authors/christy-birmingham/reviews-pi/

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Martin Heidegger:

“Ser y Tiempo”:

Martin Heidegger. (1889/1976).-

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“La Tetradimensionalidad Temporal”:

Lo propio del espacio-tiempo del tiempo auténtico reposa, empero, en el esclarecedor y recíproco ofrendar-se de futuro, pasado y presente. El tiempo auténtico es tetradimensional. La cuarta dimensión es ontológicamente, la primer, la regalía que todo lo determina. Ella aporta en el porvenir, en el pasado y en el presente el estar presente que le es propio a cada uno. Ella acerca mutuamente porvenir, pasado y presente, en la medida en que los aleja. Pues mantiene abierto lo sido, en tanto le recusa su porvenir como presente. Este acercar de la cercanía mantiene el advenir desde el futuro, en tanto que precontiene el presente en el venir. La cercanía acertante tiene el carácter de la recusación y de la retención.  

El tiempo no es. Se da el tiempo. El dar, que da tiempo, se determina desde la recusante-retinente cercanía. Procura lo abierto del espacio-tiempo y preserva lo que permanece recusado en el pasado, retenido en el futuro.  El ser-ahí es propiamente cabe sí mismo, es verdaderamente existente, cuando se mantiene en dicha anticipación. Esta anticipación no es otra cosa que el fruto propio y singular respectivo del ser-ahí . En la anticipación el ser-ahí es su futuro, pero de tal manera que en este ser futuro vuelve sobre su pasado y su presente. El ser-ahí, concebido en su posibilidad más extrema de ser, no es en el tiempo… La anticipación aprehende el haber sido como una posibilidad propia de cada instante, como lo que es seguro ahora. El ser futuro, como posibilidad del ser-ahí en cuanto respectivo de cada uno, da tiempo, porque es el tiempo mismo. Incluso en el presente del ocuparse con las cosas, el ser-ahí es el tiempo completo, de tal manera que no se deshace del futuro. El ser-ahí siempre se encuentra en un modo de su posible ser temporal. El ser-ahí es el tiempo, el tiempo es temporal. El ser-ahí no es el tiempo, sino la temporalidad. Por ello, la afirmación fundamental de que el tiempo es temporal es la definición más propia, sin constituir ninguna tautología, pues el ser de la temporalidad significa una realidad desigual. El tiempo carece de sentido; el tiempo es temporal”.

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Aquileana Dixit: 

Palas Atenea - Diosa de la sabiduría

 Para Heidegger  una representación de conciencia, en cuanto a su temporalidad, no se entiende si no es “como acumulación del momento anterior” que va fluyendo en el tiempo, hasta su final, de momento que ya “es” en su final. En un momento dado, esa representación “conserva” los elementos añadidos en el tiempo.por la comprensión de la propia finitud, se cae en cuenta que el “mundo”, en cuanto temporalidad, tiene la misma estructura. Las cosas no “desaparecen”, se conservan en un “ir yendo” hacia su finitud, de tal manera que solamente son en su finitud. Dirá Heidegger que es la dificultad en asumir la propia finitud, la que impide ver que el tiempo no es una “sucesión de instantes hasta el infinito”.  Todo es un “ir hacia” (futuro) y un dar “cuenta de algo”(pasado) que se da en la forma de espacialización (momento presente). Esto plantea una dificultad de comprensión que se resuelve teniendo copresente el registro de la propia finitud del que se interroga por la existencia real del mundo, que no se da a conciencia independientemente del observador, pero es comprendido por ella en el sentido de “lo que estaba, lo que está y lo que estará cuando yo no esté”.-

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Gone With The Wind: “I Dream Of  Jeannie” (1965):

♥”I Dream of Jeannie Theme”♥:

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♥”I Dream Of  Jeannie”♥: ♥”Barbara Eden” ♥:

http://retrovision.tv/freevideo/i-dream-of-jeannie-1965/

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Caetano Veloso: “Leãozinho”:

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…Gosto muito de você, leãozinho….

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Carl Jung:

“El Libro Rojo” / “Rotes Buch”:

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“El Libro Rojo” o “Nuevo Libro” fué escrito por Jung durante los años 1914 a 1930 y contiene el exhaustivo  trabajo que Jung hizo con la enorme inundación de contenidos inconscientes que asomaron durante una severa crisis personal que sufrió después de su ruptura con Freud. Es posiblemente la más importante obra inédita , hasta ahora, de la historia de la psicología.

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Se trata de un  volumen de 416 páginas que contiene un profundo trabajo de psicología imaginal sobre sus sueños, visiones, y reflexiones en forma literaria y plástica , escrito en alemán y redactado con caligrafía gótica y formato de libro medieval . Contiene también 212 ilustraciones de los inquietantes y enigmáticos dibujos que realizó el propio Jung . El manuscrito, denominado por Jung “Liber Novus”, permaneció inédito hasta su edición, en  el año 2009.  El escrito puede ser mejor descrito como un trabajo de psicología en una forma literaria y profética. Su publicación es un hito que inaugura una nueva era en la comprensión de la vida y trabajo de Jung. C.G. Jung emprendió un largo proceso de auto-exploración que él llamó su “confrontación con el inconsciente”. “El Libro Rojo” fue un producto de una técnica desarrollada por Jung, que denominó “imaginación activa”.

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Tal como lo describe Jung, fue visitado por dos figuras, un anciano y una mujer joven, a las que identificó como Elías y Salomé. Con el tiempo, la figura de Elías se convertiría en un guía espiritual que Jung llamó Filemon. Salomé fue identificada por Jung como una figura de ánima. La figura de Filemón representaba un conocimiento superior, y se comunicaba a través de imágenes míticas. Las imágenes no parecían provenir de la propia experiencia de Jung, interpretándolas como productos del  inconsciente colectivo. Muchos de los dibujos pintados con témpera por Jung son figuras mitológicas y mándalas, es decir diagramas simbólicos circulares utilizados por el hinduismo y el budismo.-

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“Carl Jung”: “Speech About Death”:

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Carl Gustav Jung ( 1875 /1961).-
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Pingbacks Aquileana: “Carl Jung”:
Carl Jung. “Estructura de la Psique”:
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2007/08/10/arquetipos/
Carl Jung, Richard Wilhelm: “El Secreto de la Flor de Oro”: “El Desligamiento de la Conciencia respecto del Objeto”:
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/03/08/carl-jung-el-secreto-de-la-flor-de-oro-el-desligamiento-de-la-conciencia-respecto-del-objeto/
Carl Gustav Jung: “La Alquimia y el Ideal del Unus Mundus”.-
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/03/08/carl-jung-el-secreto-de-la-flor-de-oro-el-desligamiento-de-la-conciencia-respecto-del-objeto/
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Jacques Lacan:

“La Sublimación como Proceso de Desubjetivación del Otro”:

En relación a la sublimación, tenemos que este concepto aparece en Lacan a la altura del Seminario 4 como un proceso de desubjetivación del Otro, y correlativamente en el plano imaginario se produce “bajo una forma más o menos acentuada según la mayor o menor perfección de tal sublimación, una inversión de las relaciones entre el yo y el otro”. Señalamientos que surgen de la lectura en torno a Leonardo Da Vinci, y que define un modo de creación como una alienación radical, donde el ser halla una posibilidad fundamental de olvido en el yo imaginario. 

De esta manera, se podría hacer una distinción entre la sublimación así planteada, y la salida psicoanalítica: en cuanto que en la primera no habría atravesamiento del fantasma en el sentido de una “deslibidinización” de la retórica del yo, ni tampoco se comprometería la creencia en el Ideal.

A su vez, a los fines de abordar el final de la experiencia E. Laurent describe el siguiente binario: entre sublimación literaria y sublimación analítica. En donde en principio establece que ambas coincidirían, en que cuando el sujeto escribe su obra, escribe su novela, no habría posibilidad de escribirla afuera. Sin embargo, fundamentalmente encuentran su distancia, en que en la sublimación literaria se obtiene una creencia en la obra misma, y en la analítica, “la ruptura con la creencia en el sujeto supuesto saber

De esta referencia, no se podrían dejar de considerar dos cuestiones fundamentales que se señalan sobre el amor cortés por sus incidencias en la organización sentimental del hombre contemporáneo: primero, muestra la posición efectiva de la mujer como la describen las estructuras elementales del parentesco, como solo un correlato de las funciones de intercambio social, de bienes y/o de poder. Función social “que no deja ningún lugar a su persona y a su propia libertad”. Y segundo, que el objeto femenino se introduce por la muy singular puerta de la privación, de la inaccesibilidad. Para ceñir este problema del partenaire-síntoma, Regnault considera que la creación ex nihilo que propone Lacan no se sostiene nada más en el Nombre-del-Padre, sino que se situaría más del lado de los filósofos taoístas, que declaraban que “el vacío está en el comienzo”. Así es como se puede declarar que el campo freudiano, es el campo que supone que lo que recibe el nombre del vacío es la Cosa. Y de ésta, como causa pathomenon, podemos declinar considerando el Nombre-del-Padre y lo innombrable de la Madre, tres consecuencias: si se interpreta como pecado, se obtiene la religión; como la relación imposible del hombre y la madre, el amor cortés. Y por último, como pura cosa, el arte. 

Es que como indica la experiencia, el nombre propio, el nombre del padre, no permite designar lo que hay de vivo en el sujeto. Lo designa, pero lo designa como ya muerto. Y aunque, pudiera haber un entusiasmo en el uso de la firma, esto no permite situar una relación de ruptura, de salto, con el inconsciente intérprete.

En cambio, en lo particular, la invención se encarna en una pincelada, en un gesto de la mujer en que se cree, lo que conlleva una inscripción del goce, y presentifica otra relación al objeto pulsional que se presenta en exceso, más allá de la castración.-

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 Jacques Lacan Dixit:

«Los Deseos contienen a  los Sueños… Pero, la Muerte está del lado de la Vigilia».-

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La Adivinanza de Lacan: ¿Qué es pequeño, verde, que sube y que desciende?…

Respuesta: El Inconsciente de una arveja en fase depresiva. ;)

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Miley Cyrus: “Butterfly Fly Away”

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Links Post: 
http://virtualia.eol.org.ar/020/template.asp?especial/belaga.
html http://www.musica.com/letras.asp?letra=1589574
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90´S CLASSIC: Wilson Phillips: “Hold On”:

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