♠Heraclitus of Ephesus:
“The Doctrine of Flux and the Unity of Opposites”:
The central idea of Heraclitus’ thought is undoubtedly the unity of opposites. Moreover, Heraclitus claimed that all things are one. This ‘unity of all things’ is based on the fact that there is a common formula, i.e. logos, which is at work in everything to which we attribute temporal and spatial identity and continuity. Heraclitus should not be misunderstood as denying the phenomenal difference between day and night, hot and cold, up and down, and even death and life, rather, his claim is that each opposite is inseparable from its other, and that they depend on one another for their own identity. In other words, if one of the pair is removed the other immediately disappears.
Heraclitus’ famous phrase that “you can’t step in the same river twice” should be understood as the claim that things which seem to have a stable identity, in fact depend upon a continual interchange or succession of their constitutive parts, or outright antagonistic forces, for their identity.
According to both Plato and Aristotle, Heraclitus held extreme views that led to logical incoherence. For he said that:
(1) everything is constantly changing and
(2) opposite things are identical, so that
(3) everything is and is not at the same time.
In other words, Universal Flux and the Identity of Opposites entail a denial of the Law of Non-Contradiction.
Plato indicates the source of the flux doctrine: “Heraclitus, I believe, says that all things go and nothing stays, and comparing existents to the flow of a river, he says you could not step twice into the same river” (Cratylus 402a = DK22A6).
What Heraclitus actually says is the following:
On those stepping into rivers staying the same other and other waters flow. (DK22B12)
There is an antithesis between “same” and “other”. The sentence says that different waters flow in rivers staying the same. In other words, though the waters are always changing, the rivers stay the same. Indeed, it must be precisely because the waters are always changing that there are rivers at all, rather than lakes or ponds. The message is that rivers can stay the same over time even though, or indeed because, the waters change. The point, then, is not that everything is changing, but that the fact that something change makes possible the continued existence of other things. Perhaps more generally, the change in elements or constituents supports the constancy of higher-level structures. As for the alleged doctrine of the Identity of Opposites, Heraclitus does believe in some kind of unity of opposites.
“God is day night, winter summer, war peace, saciety hunger” (DK22B67).
“What opposes unites, and the finest attunement stems from things bearing in opposite directions, and all things come about by strife”. (Fragment DK22b8).
“The path up and down is one and the same”. (Fragment DK22b60).
♠Πάντα ῥεῖ (Panta Rhei) “Everything Flows”:
♠Read The Fragments of the Work of Heraclitus of Ephesus on Nature:
(The G.W.T. Patrick translation)
♠A Short Text By Christy Birmingham which might be read accordingly to Heraclitus´ Theory of “Unity of Opposites”:
♠ Ajaytao ´s nomination, Free Choice Awards. Bouquet Of Awards:
Thanks a lot for the Bouquet of Awards Nomination; Ajay. Aquileana
Visit his blog here: Ajaytao2010
Rules for The Bouquet of Awards (Six Awards) / Reglas para el Bouquet de Premios (Seis Premios):
→As there are no specific rules here I will set up a few ones.
I will be nominating three blogs for each one of the Awards I choose. These blogs will have freee access to choose awards from the six awards available. They must nominate three blogs per Award, always linking back to the blog which has nominated them.
→Como no hay reglas específicas aquí, estableceré algunas.
Nominaré tres blogs por cada uno de los premios que elija. Esos blogs tendrán libre acceso derecho a elección de Premios. A su vez, deberán nominar a tres blogs por premio y enlazar al blog que los ha nominado.
Nominados / Nominees (18 Blogs, 3 x 6): Poetic Parfait, Kourtney Heintz’s Journal , Chesterton Blog, Kirbysdawblog, D. A. Lavoie, Nómadas, Gigi papillon rose, Mon coin du français, El Mirador, Salvela, Rotze Mardini, Los Sentidos de La Vida, Clowie´s Corner, Syl65, Irina´s Poetry Corner, Anatomía de la Intimidad, The Regular Guy NYC, Dreamwalker´s Sanctuary.
Awards to Choose / Premios para elegir (6 Awards): 1) Because You are Fantabulous Award. 2) Awesome Blossom Award. 3) Shine On Award. 4) Semper Fidelis Award. 5) Very Inspiring Blogger Award. 6) Best Moment Award.