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Archive for the ‘Literatura’ Category

►Mythology:

“Dionysus, Greek God of Wine and Fertility”:

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"The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)" by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

“The Youth of Bacchus (Dionysus)” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1884).-

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Dionysus, also commonly known by his Roman name Bacchus and sometimes Liber, appears to be a god who has two distinct origins.

On the one hand, Dionysus was the god of wine, agriculture, and fertility of nature.

On the other hand, Dionysus also represents the outstanding features of mystery religions, such as those practiced at Eleusis: ecstasy, personal delivery from the daily world through physical or spiritual intoxication, and initiation into secret rites. 

He was son of the king of the Greek gods, Zeus, and Semele, the mortal daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia of Thebes. Dionysus is called “twice born” because of the unusual manner in which he grew: not only in a womb, but also in a thigh.

►Dionysus’ Birth:

Hera, queen of the gods, jealous because her husband was playing around (again), took characteristic revenge: She punished the woman. In this case, Semele.

Zeus had visited Semele in human form, but claimed to be a god. Hera persuaded her that she needed more than his word that he was divine. Zeus knew the sight of him in all his splendor would prove fatal, but he had no choice, so he revealed himself. His lightning brightness killed Semele, but first, Zeus took the unborn from her womb and sewed it inside his thigh. There it gestated until it was time for birth.

►Companions of Dionysus:

Dionysus is usually shown in the company of others who are enjoying the fruit of the vine. Silenus or multiple sileni and nymphs engaged in drinking, flute-playing, dancing, or amorous pursuits are the most common companions.  

Depictions of Dionysus may also include Maenads, the human women made mad by the wine god. 

Silenus is a woodland creature from Greek mythology who is part man and part animal, and a companion of Dionysus. He is shown with horse ears and sometimes horse legs and tail.

The Nymphs of Nysa raised the infant Dionysus on Mt. Nysa. Later on, they became his followers. They appear in the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus. Unlike the human Maenads, another group of female followers of Dionysus, the nymphs follow him willingly and without madness. 

He is usually ivy-wreathed and wears a chiton and often an animal skin. Other attributes of Dionysus are wine, vines, ivy, panthers, leopards, and theater.

Writers often contrast Dionysus with his half-brother Apollo. Where Apollo personifies the cerebral aspects of mankind, Dionysus represents the libido and gratification.

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Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

Dionysius (details on ancient greek vases).-

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"The Boy Bacchus" Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus) by  Guido Reni

“The Boy Bacchus” Detail of the painting with grapes ornamenting the head of Bacchus (Dionysus), by Guido Reni.-

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"Bacchus" by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

“Bacchus” by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1595).-

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►Links Post:
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/d/dionysus.html 
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html 
http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_text_homerhymn_dionysus2.htm
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/dionysusmyth/g/092509NymphsNysa.htm

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 ►Last but not Least: Two Awards:

I) My italian blogger friend Omar from Ramo Di Parole has nominated me for a Very Inspiring Blogger Award. Tante Grazie, caro Omar :D

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Very Inspiring Blogger Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate fifteen (15) bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

Very Inspiring Blogger Award.-

►Here are my fifteen (15) nominees for this award:

1. Poet Smith 2. Inese Photo 3. The echo of the whole sea 4.  A window into the woods 5. A journey of faith 6. Pavement stories 7. A pondering mind 8. T Ibara Photo 9. Desirée Jiménez 10. A curious gal 11. Not a Punk Rocker 12. The task at hand 13. Taking one day at a time 14. Wing of dreams 15. Crazy guy in Thailand 

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II) Mi amiga blogger Desirée Jiménez desde Atrevo la Palabra me ha nominado para un Premio Dardos. Mil Gracias, Desirée :P

►Aquí están las reglas del Premio:

1) Ubicar el logo del Premio Dardos en el blog.

2) Nominar a otros quince (15) bloggers, enlazando a sus respectivos blogs e informándolos de la nominación.

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Premio Dardos.-

Premio Dardos.-

► Mis quince (15) nominados para este premio son:

1. En Humor Arte 2. I lost my lens cap 3.Té con sal 4. A solas con Caronte 5. Sendero blog 6. Bella espíritu 7. Ramo di parole 8. Fábula Gótica 9. Rotze Mardini 10. El tiempo habitado 11. Los sentidos de la vida 12. Arcilla y Fuego 13. Lo que ahora mismo pienso 14. Francisco Javier Tostado 15. Ser nosotros mismos.

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►Greek Mythology: “The Golden Apple of Discord” /

►Poetry: “Who is The Fairest?”, by Christy Birmingham:

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Guillaume Guillon Lethière (1812).-

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The Garden of the Hesperides was Hera´s  orchard, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality-giving golden apples grew. The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additional safeguard. 

However, in the mythology surrounding “the Judgement of Paris”, the goddess of Discord Eris managed to enter the garden and pluck a golden apple.

Eris had become  disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (Achilles ‘ parents).

Angered by this snub, Eris arrived at the celebration with a golden apple, which she threw into the proceedings, upon which was the inscription Kallisti ( ‘For the most beautiful one’ or ‘For the Fairest’).

Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. Prince Paris of Troy as appointed to select the recipient. 

While Paris inspected them, each attempted with her powers to bribe him; Hera offered to make him king of Europe and Asia, Athena offered wisdom and skill in war, and Aphrodite, offered the world’s most beautiful woman.

This was Helen of Sparta, wife of the Greek king Menelaus. Paris accepted Aphrodite’s gift and awarded the apple to her.

Later on, he abducted her, all of Greece declared war against Troy, causing the Trojan War and the eventual destruction of Troy. 

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"The Judgment of Paris" by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

“The Judgment of Paris” by Claude Lorrain (1645-1646).-

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►A Poem By Christy Birmingham: “Who is the Fairest?”

(Based on the Greek Myth of “The Golden Apple of Discord”): 

If I transported back to mythical times,

Would I be the fairest?

Would I be the one to snatch the

Apple first, savoring the

Fruit, eyes and delight of all?

 

If so, I would stand above Athena, Hera and

Aphrodite, in this beauty contest that

Judges only our outer skin, revealing nothing of

Our spirits, as though denying us the

Opportunity to reveal our sweet, fruity tastes.

 

If I transported back to mythical times,

I wonder if I would also bribe Paris to win –

And what would I offer as the winning power?

Would it be savory or sweet?

 

Indeed, the golden apple caused quite the uproar,

An apple of discord not to be forgotten,

And I only hope that my winning power is

One day revealed,

As it is a blend unlike any other:

 

It is the ability to connect with you.

 

 ©2014 Christy Birmingham.-

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The poem “Who is the Fairest?” was originally written by Christy Birmingham as a recreation of the Greek myth related to the Judgement of Paris and the Golden Apple of Discord.

►About Christy Birmingham:

Christy is a freelance writer, poet and author. She lives in British Columbia, Canada. 

She writes poetry and short stories to motivate readers and to reach out to struggling women. Her intent is to spread hope and understanding about depression, abuse and other issues.

Christy has written countless poems since childhood. She is the author of the poetry collection “Pathways to Illumination” (2013), available exclusively at Redmund Productions.

You can check out Christy Birmingham´s writer portfolio here

She also hosts two great blogs: Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire.  (You can also check out this post at Poetic Parfait: here).

Feel free to connect with Christy at on social media at Twitter and Google Plus .

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"The Golden Apple of Discord", labelled Kallisti ("For the Most Beautiful One").-

“The Golden Apple of Discord”, labelled Kallisti (“For the Fairest” / “For the Most Beautiful One” ).-

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►Paintings : “The Judgement of Paris”:

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This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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►Links post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_(symbolism)
http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Fi-Go/Fruit-in-Mythology.html
http://www.spiffy-entertainment.com/applediscord.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesperides
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5452761_paris-golden-apple-greek-myth.html
http://poeticparfait.com/about/

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►Greek Mythology:

“Atalanta, Hippomenes,  a Footrace and Three Golden Apples”:

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"The Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes" by Nicolas Colombel (1680).-

“The Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes” by Nicolas Colombel (1680).-

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Atalanta was a great Arkadian huntress and a favourite of the goddess Artemis. Shewas exposed by her father in the wilderness at birth, but was suckled by a she-bear and afterwards found and raised by hunters.

She swore to the goddess to defend her virginity and, when Centaurs burst into her grove, destroyed them with her arrows.

Later she participated in the voyage of the Argonauts, and defeated the hero Peleus in wrestling at the funeral games of King Pelias.

When Meleagros gathered heroes to destroy the Kalydonian Boar, Atalanta joined the hunt and was the first to draw blood.

Meleagros awarded her the prize of the skin, and when his uncles tried to take it from her force, he slew them.

After the Calydonian boar hunt, Atalanta was rediscovered by her father. He wanted her to be married, but Atalanta, uninterested in marriage, agreed to marry only if her suitors could outrun her in a footrace. Those who lost would be killed. King Schoeneus agreed, and many young men died in the attempt until Hippomenes came along.

Hippomenes asked the goddess Aphrodite for help, and she gave him three golden apples in order to slow Atalanta down. 

Aphrodite gave him three golden apples – which came rom the Garden of the Hesperides, according to Servius – and told him to drop them one at a time to distract Atalanta. 

These golden apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia  gave to Hera as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus.

The golden apples were irresistible, so every time Atalanta got ahead of Hippomenes, he rolled an apple ahead of her, and she would run after it. In this way, Hippomenes won the footrace and came to marry Atalanta. Eventually they had a son Parthenopaios.

Zeus or his mother  Rhea  turned Atalanta and Hippomenes into lions after they made love together in one of his temples.

Other accounts say that Aphrodite changed them into lions because they did not give her proper honor.

The belief at the time was that lions could not mate with their own species, only with leopards; thus Atalanta and Hippomenes would never be able to remain with one another.

►Symbolism and other facts: The Greek word χρυσομηλιά, and Latin “pomum aurantium” both literally describe oranges as “golden apples”.

The unnamed fruit of the Garden of Eden became an apple under the influence of the story of the golden apples  in the Garden of the Hesperides.

As a result, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, inmortality, temptation, sin and the fall of man. Secular art as well made use of the apple as symbol of love and sexuality. 

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"Atlanta and Hippomenes" by Willem van Herp (1632).-

“Atlanta and Hippomenes” by Willem van Herp (1632).-

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►”Three Greek Myths related to Golden Apples”:

1) “Atalanta and Hippomenes´Footrace”, 2) “The Garden of Hesperides and Heracles´Eleventh Labor”, 3) “The Judgement of Paris”:

1) Goddess Aphrodite gave Hippomenes three golden apple which he used to beat Atalanta in the footrace, as he rolled them ahead of her while she was running. Hippomenes was also known as Melanion, a name possibly derived from “melon” the Greek word for both “apple” and fruit in general.

2) Heracles´Eleventh Labor was to retrieve the Golden Apples from The Garden of the Hesperides. First, he flattered the Hesperides, but they didn’t give him the apples. Then he found Atlas and convinced him to give him the sky for a little so Atlas went to see his daughters and they gave him a golden apple. Then Atlas gave the apple to Hercules).

3) The chain of events that started the Trojan War all began with a spiteful goddess and a simple appleZeus was putting together a wedding banquet for Peleus and Thetis. He planned to invite just about everyone. Everyone except Eris.

However, Eris arrived at the celebration with a golden apple from the Garden of the Hesperides, which she threw into the proceedings, upon which was the inscription καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, “For the most beautiful one”). Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

Zeus declared that Paris of Troy would decide who deserved the apple. Paris chose Aphrodite’s offer, so she got the apple and Paris was given Helen, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta. Paris abducted her and took her to Troy.

The Greeks’ expedition to retrieve Helen from Paris in Troy is the mythological basis of the Trojan War.

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►Slideshare: “Who was Atlanta?”:

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Click above to watch it.-

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►”Read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story on “The Metamorphoses” by Ovid”:

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Click on teh Image aboev to read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story (Book X  verses 560 to 680).-

Click on the Image above to read Atalanta and Hippomenes´story (Ovid´s “Metamorphoses”. Book X Verses 560 to 680).-

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►Links Post:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atalanta

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippomenes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_(symbolism)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_apple#Oranges

http://www.pbase.com/dlcmh/c01_thethreegoldenapples

http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/JudgementParis.html

http://camphalfblood.wikia.com/wiki/The_Garden_of_the_Hesperides

http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/greek-mythology-agamemnons-family-and-the-war-of-troy/

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►Last but not Least: ”Three Awards”:

I have been nominated for three Awards.

I) My dear blogger friend Sue Dreamwalker nominated me for an “Angel Award”. Check out her brilliant  site and the nomination both here. Thanks a bunch, Sue 

II) Cool blogger Deimos and Phobos has kindly nominated for the ” Black Wolf Blogger Award”. You can check out nomination and great blog here. Thank you very much.

III) I have been nominated for an Versatile Bloger Award (Trophee Version) coming from Between Sky and Earth. As I already had this award I changed its feature… Check the nomination and the sparkling blog here. Thank You.

►Here are the Awards Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) Bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Angel Award

Angel Award.-

►Here are my ten (10) nominees for this award:

1) Aisha´s Oasis 2)  The Tropical Flowering Zone 3) Clanmother 4) Kittykatmandoo 5) The dune mouse (CybeleMoon) 6) Tarot Psychologique 7) Wendy Mac Donald 8) Delvina Lavoie 9) En Humor Arte 10) Rotze Mardini.

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Black Wolf Blogger Award.-

Black Wolf Blogger Award.-

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1) Sue Dreamwalker 2) I lost my lens cap 3) Kev´s blog 4) Chesterton´s Blog 5) Sweet as a picture 6) Marina Kanavaki 7) Inesemjphotography 8)  Between Sky and Earth 9) Todo el Oro del Mundo 10) Dina´s Illustrations.

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Versatile Blogger (Trophee).

Versatile Blogger (Trophee).-

► My ten (10) nominees for this award are:

1) Jeri Walker-Bickett 2) Eternal Atlantis  3) Apollo´s Raven 4) Agustín Ayala 5) Speedy Rabbit 6)  Talker Blogger 7) Deimos and Phobos 8) Poesiaincodice 9) Mario Aguirre 10) Nature Restores Me.

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►Greek Mythology: “Orpheus and Eurydice”:

“The Myth and a Brief Story by Andreas Keller”(Nannus):

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"Orpheus and Eurydice" by John Roddam Spencer Stanhope.-

“Orpheus and Eurydice” by John Roddam Spencer Stanhope.-

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Orpheus was usually said to be the son of the Thracian king Oiagros and Kalliope, one of the Muses. He was a devoted follower of Dionysos and a wonderful singer and musician. He was such a great singer that everyone and everything were moved and charmed by his music, men, birds, beasts, rocks, trees and rivers!

He had been taught to play the lyre by Apollo, and such was his skill on the instrument, together with the sweetness of his singing voice, that he could charm wild animals and even cause trees to uproot themselves and follow in his steps. 

He also participated in the expedition of Jason and the Argonauts and he saved his companions from death by the Sirens, the monstrous women who were singing to attract men in their death. Orpheus played a beautiful music with his lyre, outsinging the Sirens.

Orpheus fell in love with a nymph named Eurydice and blissful was their life together until one day she was pursued by a son of Apollo, the minor deity Aristaeus. In her headlong eagerness to escape, she stepped on a poisonous snake, was bitten and died. Disconsolate, Orpheus found a cave which lead to Hades and followed Eurydice to the Underworld. Here his musical charms were so persuasive that  Persephone permitted the minstrel to take his sweetheart home with him – on one condition: that he should never look back at her until they arrived at the world above.  

This condition was so simple that it takes some explaining to account for Orpheus’s failure to heed it. In any case, he did the one thing he had been forbidden. He turned around and looked at Eurydice, and she was lost to him forever.

Orpheus swore he would never love another, and it may have been the steadfastness of this vow which caused certain wild women of Thrace to tear him limb from limb in a fit of jealousy. They threw his head into a river, and it kept on singing all the way to the sea. The women killed him, cut his body into pieces and threw them and his lyre into a river. It is said that his head and his lyre floated downriver to the island of Lesvos. There the Muses found them and gave Orpheus a proper burial ceremony. People believed that his grave emanated music, plaintive yet beautiful. His soul descended down to Hades where he was finally reunited with his beloved Eurydice.

►The Comparison To a Bible’s Scene: The myth of Orpheus and Eurydice is similar to the “Story of Lot’s wife” (Genesis 19). The analogy of “not looking back” is of great importance to both stories. In the Book of Genesis, when God decided to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, two cities drowned in sins, he ordered a good man, Lot, to take his family and leave the area. God told them to head for the mountains without looking back the city being destroyed. While they were leaving the city, Lot’s wife couldn’t resist and turned around to see the burning cities. She was immediately transformed into a pillar of salt! This may be inferred as a direct and terrifying consequence of disobedience towards God. 

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"Orpheus and Eurydice" by Peter Paul Rubens.-

“Orpheus and Eurydice” by Peter Paul Rubens.-

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►”Eurydice and Orpheus”: “A Brief Story By Andreas Keller”: 

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"Orpheus and Eurydice" by Angelica Kauffmann.-

“Orpheus and Eurydice” by Angelica Kauffmann.-

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“It is not true that Eurydice had to return because Orpheus looked back. It was the other way around”…

Eurydice: I will remain here; I cannot come any further with you.

Orpheus: But I have not turned around nor looked back, as I was asked to. So just come with me.

EurydiceDon’t you understand that I do not stay behind because you might have looked back? No, you did not understand the condition. You will turn around and look back because I don’t come with you. I am going to leave you here. I am tired.

Orpheus: So I have been betrayed.

EurydiceHumans always betray themselves. Actually, we just walk together for some time, and then we part. Sing, Orpheus, sing, because the meadows and forests, the lakes and plains are there only in your song. That world is inside the human being, not outside. Outside is only this narrow path between the rocks. There is one tedious step after the other. There is no Hades below and no upper world above.

Orpheus: I am looking at you now. So is that the last time?

Eurydice: Do you see my wrinkles? I am too old to continue. You will go ahead and I will stay here. I will step back behind that line. I will turn around and walk away. Those who cross the line silently walk away and never turn around again.

Orpheus: But why? Was everything in vain?

Eurydice: Nothing was in vain. We walked together, and you were holding my hand. I could listen to your song.

Orpheus: But did not the gods themselves weep when I was singing?

Eurydice: The world of the gods is cold and without empathy. The gods cannot sing, they are deaf to song. The gods are dwelling in Hades. Don’t you know that Mount Olympus is part of Hades? You must sing, Orpheus! For the immortals, everything is the same all the time. The immortals have no beginning and no end. They have no history. They live by cold laws. They don’t have a life.

OrpheusBut are they not very powerful?

Eurydice: Yes, they are very powerful. But they are blind and deaf.

Orpheus: We can see and hear, but we, we are mortal.

EurydiceYes, we are mortal. What the gods have given to us is only this narrow rocky path and the hard steps of this staircase. That is all the gods where able to give. But for the mortals, there is more. They have a life, they have a history. They have songs. They create. The gods cannot create. Their world is perfect and complete, and therefore blind and deaf and mindless and infertile. There is nothing new. There is no history and no life, only unchanging, invariable laws.

Orpheus: But you; was not your father Apollo?

Eurydice: I was a nymph, part of the immortal world, but I choose the world of the mortals. I thank you, Orpheus, you have given life and meaning to me through your songs and your love. Now go. This was my choice, make it yours. We have to agree with life and with death.

OrpheusI understand now. I also thank you. So I let go now?

EuridiceOnly mortals can enter the upper world. It is in your songs, in your dance, in the lyre and in the stories you tell. Did you not notice that we were there together? Now let go. It is time to let go now, first with the hand and then with the hart. Sing your song, and let go.

Touch turns into

memory of touch.

Glance turns into

memory of glance.

Voice turns into

memory of voice.

OrpheusBut will I see you again?

Eurydice

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This Brief story in dialogue form was originally posted at “The Asifoscope”  . Click here to check it out.-

►About Andreas Keller / Nannus: He lives in Cologne, Germany. His nickname is Nannus.

He also has an alter ego called Tsish, the extraterrestrial. I read that a long time ago Tsish was able to connect his spaceship to Nannus´ living room,  by means of a spiral staircase. That way, he was able to link to Andreas and Nannus ´W-LAN (Well, after all they are the same person, so it makes sense). Besides, during his stay in the T-Planet, also known as EarthTsish  began to study the Internet and he  became an expert at blogging.

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Click on the image to check out Andreas Keller' s blog.-

Click on the image to check out Andreas Keller’ s blog.-

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"Orpheus and Eurydice", by Federico Cervelli.-

“Orpheus and Eurydice”, by Federico Cervelli.-

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"Orpheus and Eurydice" by Jean Raoux.-

“Orpheus and Eurydice” by Jean Raoux.-

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►Links Post:

http://www.touristorama.com/en/Orpheus-and-Eurydice-02235

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpheus_and_Eurydice

http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/eurydice/eurydicemyth.html

http://www.greeka.com/greece-myths/orpheus-eurydice.htm

http://asifoscope.org/2013/08/09/eurydice-and-orpheus/

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►Last but not Least: ” Community of Bloggers Award”:

My dearest friend Christy Birmingham, from Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire has freely proposed us to grab one of the awards she has recently received and pass it on to some fellow bloggers. I accepted her offer and will nominate ten bloggers I have met over the past few weeks.  

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Wonderful Team Member Readership Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10) she/he admires,  by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

►And here are my ten (10) nominees: 1) High- Grade Discurse  2) The Asifoscope 3) Pipin run wild 4) Word Musing 5) Carol Insigna 6) Random Things From G 7) Peak Perspective 8) Outlook in Life 9) Wish I were Here 10) Mind Love Misery.

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Community of Bloggers Award.-

Community of Bloggers Award.-

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►Greek Mythology:

“The Labyrinth of Crete, Theseus and The Minotaur”:

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"Theseus and Ariadne at the Entrance of the Labyrinth" by Richard Westall (1810).-

“Theseus and Ariadne at the Entrance of the Labyrinth” by Richard Westall.-

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PASFAE1Minos was the king of Crete and Pasipahe´s husband. As we already know, Pasiphae was the Mother of the Minotaur.

After Pasiphae become impregnated by a white bull, she then gave birth to an hybrid child, the bull-headed Minotaur.

Angered with his wife, Minos imprisoned the minotaur in the labyrinth of Crete in Knossos.

Some modern mythologists regard the Minotaur as a solar personification and a Minoan adaptation of the Baal- Moloch of the Phoenicians. The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the breaking of Athenian tributary relations with Minoan Crete.

My blogger friend María, from The Tropical Flowering Zone held in one of her comments in my previous post that “the Minotaur was spawned from the liaison of a woman and a bull, and symbolizes this ‘coincidentia oppositorum’ (meeting of opposites) of feminine and masculine, creature and human, rational and irrational, spiritual and instinctual, deity and demon, good and evil”…  As to Pasipahe´s pregnancy she believes it could be understood as a “symbol of a mother’s unconditional love, as well as her ability to conceive entrains a assumption and materialization of Poseidon’s punishment”.

Doda, from My space in the Inmense Universe, said that  “it is unfair to pay the price for faults we have never committed”. By highlighting then that: “Pasiphae, was the expiatory victim for Minos’ inconsistency and hybris”

min2In the ancient Greek language, the word Labyrinth means “the house of lavrys.” The lavrys is the double-edged axe – one of the basic sacred symbols of the Minoan religion. Usually interpreted as an astro-solar symbol, the lavrys is etched on many sculptured stones in Minoan palaces and other buildings, as well as on vases, pots, and various other works.

There are clear and straight connections between Minoan Crete and Greece. In this sense, my blogger friend, Aisha from Aisha´s Oasis has highlighted in one of her latest comments that Agamemnon’s father, Atreus (Greek), got married Princess Aerope, who was the daughter of King Catreus of Crete. Being therefore Aerope the mother of Agamemnon and his twin brother Menelaus (the famous husband of Helen).

Aisha also found an analogy worth noting. Which applies to the two respective myths, as Atreus also came into the possession of a lamb with a golden fleece. He had promised to sacrifice it to Artemis, but reneged on his vow and kept the lamb (or its fleece) hidden away. Minos, by his part, owned a white bull, which was supposed to be sacrificed to Apollo, he also reneged on his words and keep it to himself in the gardens of the Palace of Knossos.

Pasiphae, wife of King Minos of Crete, had several children before the Minotaur. The eldest of these, Androgeus  set sail for Athens to take part in the Pan-Athenian games. Being strong, he did very well, winning some events outright. He soon became a crowd favorite, much to the resentment of the Pallantides, and they assassinated him, incurring the wrath of Minos.

When King Minos heard of what befell his son, he ordered the Cretan fleet to set sail for Athens. Minos asked Aegeus for his son’s assassins, and if they were to be handed to him, the town would be spared. However, not knowing who the assassins were, King Aegeus surrendered the whole town to Minos’ mercy. His retribution was that, at the end of every Great Year  (seven solar years), the seven most courageous youths and the seven most beautiful maidens were to board a boat and be sent as tribute to Crete, never to be seen again.

In another version, Minos had waged war with the Athenians and was successful. He then demanded that, at nine-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, who was also Pasiphae´s son and lived in the Labyrinth built by Daedalus

On the third occasion, Theseus,  the son of the King of Athens. volunteered to slay the Minotaur.

But in that occasion he also  fell in love with Minos’ daughter Ariadne, who would on no account let her beloved become food for the Minotaur.

theseus_minos1Daedalus’ aid was requested once more, and he gave Ariadne a clue or ball of strong thread. Theseus, following Daedalus’ advice, tied one end of the string to the Labyrinth entrance, and walked through the maze unwinding it until he found the Minotaur. Once he had killed the monster, he followed the thread back out.

Theseus managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne as well as her younger sister Phaedra. Then he and the rest of the crew fell asleep on the beach.

Goddess Athena woke up Theseus and told him to leave early that morning, leaving Ariadne and Phaedra on the beach.

Stricken with distress, in hre trip back home, Theseus forgot to put up the white sails instead of the black ones, so the king assumed Theseus had failed and committed suicide.In some versions throwing himself off a cliff and into the sea, thus causing this body of water to be named the Aegean.

Theseus then became King of Athens.  His “mistake” when he sailed home implied tha the  became King as a result of it.

So, as Aisha has commented: “that was an ironic twist at the end… And one wonders if it was really a mistake”.

In the meanwhile, Dionysus later saw Ariadne  of Crete, crying out for Theseus and took pity on her and decided to marry her.

During Minos’ reigning years, Daedalus, from Athens , took up residence in Knossos, after he was exiled to Crete for committing a crime in his own country. In Crete he eventually became the official architect and sculptor for Minos. In Knossos he built the Palace, the Labyrinth, the wooden likeness of a cow for Pasiphae, and even as said before, helped Ariadne and Theseus kill the horrible Minotaur.

However, when Minos became disillusioned with Deadalus because he had betrayed him, he jailed him together with his son in the labyrinth.

Daedalus wanted to scape, so made a pair of wings for himself and Icarus and they flew away.

The wings were made of feathers held together with wax. Daedalus warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, as it would melt his wings, and not too close to the sea, as it would dampen them and make it hard to fly. 

They successfully flew from Crete, but Icarus grew exhilarated by the thrill of flying and began getting careless. Flying too close to the sun, the wax holding together his wings melted from the heat and he fell to his death, drowning in the sea. The Icarian Sea, where he fell, was named after him. 

You can check out more on this last topic in this post: Icarus´Fall: “The Myth. Symbolism and Interpretation”.-

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"Les sept athéniennes livrées au Minotaure" par Jean-Baptiste Peytavin.-

“Les sept athéniennes livrées au Minotaure” par Jean-Baptiste Peytavin.-

"Athenians being Delivered to the Minotaur in the Cretan Laby" by Gustave Moreau.-

“Athenians being Delivered to the Minotaur in the Cretan Laby” by Gustave Moreau.-

"Ariadne and Theseus" by Jean-Baptiste Regnault.-

“Ariadne and Theseus” by Jean-Baptiste Regnault.-

" Ariadne in Naxos, from the Story of Theseus" by Master of the Campana Cassoni.-

” Ariadne in Naxos, from the Story of Theseus” by Master of the Campana Cassoni.-

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►Literary and Philosophical Notes:

minotaur•The Minotaur, appears briefly in Dante´s “Divine Comedy”, Inferno, (Canto XII). In these lines, Virgil taunts the Minotaur in order to distract him, and reminds the Minotaur that he was killed by Theseus (“the Duke of Athens”) with the help of the monster’s half-sister Ariadne. The Minotaur seems to represent the entire zone of Violence, and serves a similar role as gatekeeper for the entire seventh Circle.

•I suggest you to check out this post The Labyrinth of The Soul at E-Tinkerbel´s blog. There, Stefy relates the classic elements of the Labyrinth and the Minotaur´s myth to James Joyce´ book “Ulysses” . Worth reading.

•If you want to read a beautiful brief story about the labyrinth and the Minotaur, check out: “The House of Asterion” / “La Casa de Asterión” (English/Spanish) by argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.-

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"Dante´s  Hell XII", by William Blake.-

“Dante´s Hell XII”, by William Blake.-

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Danke schön: Thanks to Aisha, María and Doda for their collaboration and notes on this post. Thanks also to Stefy for posting such an interesting article on the labyrint and Joyce’s “Ulysses”.

 Visit their blogs, they are Brilliant!.  Cheers, Aquileana :P

►Updates: Mario Cornejo Cuevas has written a remarkable post, inspired by this one. Its title is “Socrates y el Minotauro” (“Socrates and the Minotaur”).

In his post, he analyzed Plato’s dialogue “Phaedo” (which main topics are Socrates´death and the Immortality of the Soul) linking it to the myth of the Minotaur and his further death by Theseus. I truly recommend it.

Rubén García suggested me to read this exceptional brief  story by Antonio Tabucchi: “Sueño de Dédalo, arquitecto y aviador” (“Dream of Daedalus, Architect and Aviator” ).  Worth reading.

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Credit photo: Inesemjphotography. Thank you very much :D

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aquileana

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Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labyrinth 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theseus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretan_bull
http://homepage.usask.ca/~jrp638/CourseNotes/AgBckgnd.html
http://www.explorecrete.com/mythology/icarus.html 
http://www.explorecrete.com/history/labyrinth-myth.htm

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