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►Mythology / Philosophy: 

“The Lost City of Atlantis”, according to Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”:

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Plato’s two dialogues pertaining to Atlantis are “Timaeus” and “Critias”, written in 360 BC. These are the earliest known written records about the Lost Continent of Atlantis, all other written references to Atlantis have been written since, and have been based on these writings by Plato.

“Timaeus” and “Critias” are actually written in the form of dialogues between four main characters: Socrates (Greek philosopher, and Plato’s teacher), Critias (poet & historian), Timaeus (an Italian astronomer.), and Hermocrates (a general from Syracuse). All were real people.

The dialogue “Timaeus” includes only a passing reference to Atlantis, but the second writing, the Critias, has a much more in depth description of Atlantis leading upto it’s downfall. 

The fabled island-continent derives its name from the Titan Atlas. It was said to be out beyond the western headland where the immortal giant holds up the heavens by means of a pillar on his back.

•The Atlantis, as described by Plato:

Plato told the story of Atlantis around 360 B.C.

According to Plato, Atlantis was the domain of Poseidon, god of the sea. When Poseidon fell in love with a mortal woman, Cleito, he created a dwelling at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her.

Cleito gave birth to five sets of twin boys who became the first rulers of Atlantis. The island was divided among the brothers with the eldest, Atlas, first King of Atlantis, being given control over the central hill and surrounding areas.

At the top of the central hill, a temple was built to honor Poseidon which housed a giant gold statue of Poseidon riding a chariot pulled by winged horses. It was here that the rulers of Atlantis would come to discuss laws, pass judgments, and pay tribute to Poseidon.

The founders of Atlantis, he said, were half god and half human. They created a utopian civilization and became a great naval power. Their home was made up of concentric islands separated by wide moats and linked by a canal that penetrated to the center. The lush islands contained gold, silver, and other precious metals and supported an abundance of rare, exotic wildlife. There was a great capital city on the central island.

For generations the Atlanteans lived simple, virtuous lives. But slowly they began to change. Greed and power began to corrupt them. When Zeus saw the immorality of the Atlanteans he gathered the other gods to determine a suitable punishment and destroy them.

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•Destruction of the Atlantis:

The most popular theories as to the destruction of Atlantis are exactly what Plato described, earthquakes and floods. The floods more than likely attributable to the tidal waves that would have been caused by the earthquakes. 

Another theory is that there was a volcano on the island that errupted with such force that the island was buried in molten lava. 

For Plato, Atlantis was an island, supposedly the size of Libya and Asia Minor combined, located in the Atlantic beyond Gibraltar and due to its central position a stepping stone by which travelers could reach other islands and the opposing land mass.

•Where was the city of Atlantis placed?:

There are many theories about where Atlantis was—in the Mediterranean: Thera,  Chales Pellegrino and Walter Friedrich, Cyprus (Robert Sarmast ), Central or South America (Ivar Zapp and George Erikson ) even under what is now Antarctica (Colin Wilson). [Note: You can check out ten possible locations here].

Many believe that Plato was basing his account of Atlantis on the history of the Minoan civilization, which would coincide well with these new dates. The history of the Minoan civilization and the description of Atlantis have a suspicious amount in common at any rate.

Ballard says, the legend of Atlantis is a “logical” one since cataclysmic floods and volcanic explosions have happened throughout history, including one event that had some similarities to the story of the destruction of Atlantis. About 3,600 years ago, a massive volcanic eruption devastated the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea near Greece. At the time, a highly advanced society of Minoans lived on Santorini. The Minoan civilization disappeared suddenly at about the same time as the volcanic eruption.

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►”The Atlantis: Hypothetical Locations” (Map Gallery):

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►The Atlantis in Plato’s dialogues “Timaeus” and “Critias”.

(Read the relevant excerpts):

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►Check out “Timaeus” excerpts with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

►Check out “Critias”‘ excerpt with regard to the Atlantis: Click Here.

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►Bonustrack: Video: “Atlantis by artist Monsu Desiderio”:

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►Links Post:
http://www.mythweb.com/encyc/entries/atlantis.html
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/archaeology/atlantis/
http://www.mcmillinmedia.com/atlantean-geography/
http://unxplained-factor.com/critias.htm
http://unxplained-factor.com/timaeus.htm
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►Last but not Least: Two Awards: 

Kolytyi from “Trifles” nominated me  for a Liebster Award. Thank you very much, dear blogger friend :D

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Liebster Award logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate eleven (11)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Liebster Award.-

Liebster Award.-

 These are my eleven nominees for this award:

1) Kev´s Blog  2) En Humor arte 3) Autonomía en las formas 4Jet Eliot 5) London Senior 6) Unclee Tree 7Brushespapers 8) The Passion Dew 9) A solas con Caronte 10) Animasmundi11) Blog de Javier

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My  blogger friend, Caronte Moratalla from “A solas con Caronte” and my dear friend Verónica from “En Humor Arte” have both nominated me for the same award. Thanks a lot :)

►Here are the Award Rules:

1) The nominee shall display the Premio sin premio logo on her/his blog.

2) The nominee shall nominate ten (10)  bloggers she/he admires, by linking to their blogs and informing them about it.

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Premio Sin Premio

Premio Sin Premio.-

  These are my ten nominees for this award:

1) Chesterton Blog 2) Sweet as a picture 3) Isaspi 4) Word Musing 5) A little bird tweets 6) Angelart Star 7) Imaginecontinua 8) Cruz del Sur 9) Diwata in Lalaland 10) Si vis pacem para bellum.

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Thanks for dropping by, fellow bloggers. Happy Thursday and best wishes, Aquileana/Amalia :D

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►Greek Mythology and Philosophy:

“The Dichotomy Apollonian -Dionysian”, according to Friedrich Nietzsche:

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Apollonian and Dionysian are terms used by Nietzsche in his book “The Birth of Tragedy” to designate the two central principles in Greek culture. 

Apollo was the son of zeus and Leto. Artemis was his twin sister. He was the greek god of prophecy, music, intellectual pursuits, healing, plague, and sometimes, the sun.

Writers often contrast the cerebral, beardless young Apollo with his half-brother, the hedonistic Dionysus.

As to Dionysus, he was the son of Zeus and Semele. Dionysus was the greek god of wine, agriculture, and fertility of nature. He was also related to mystery religions, such as those practised at Eleusis, being linked to ecstasy and initiation into secret rites.

Apollo, as the sun-god, represents light, clarity, and form, whereas Dionysus, as the wine-god, represents drunkenness and ecstasy.

The Apollonian, which corresponds to Schopenhauer’s principium individuationis (“principle of individuation”), is the basis of all analytic distinctions.

Everything that is part of the unique individuality of man or thing is Apollonian in character; all types of form or structure are Apollonian, since form serves to define or individualize that which is formed; thus, sculpture is the most Apollonian of the arts, since it relies entirely on form for its effect. Rational thought is also Apollonian since it is structured and makes distinctions.

The Dionysian, which corresponds to Schopenhauer’s conception of “Will”, is directly opposed to the Apollonian.

Drunkenness and madness are Dionysian because they break down a man’s individual character; all forms of enthusiasm and ecstasy are Dionysian, for in such states man gives up his individuality and submerges himself in a greater whole: music is the most Dionysian of the arts, since it appeals directly to man’s instinctive, chaotic emotions and not to his formally reasoning mind.

“Dionysian spirit” is defined in the philosophy of Nietzsche, as displaying creative-intuitive power as opposed to critical-rational power.

But, both of them, the Apollonian and the Dionysian are necessary in the creation of art. Without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. Although they are diametrically opposed, they are also intimately intertwined.

The Greek tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles, which Nietzsche considers to be among humankind’s greatest accomplishments, achieve their sublime effects by taming Dionysian passions by means of the Apollonian. Greek tragedy evolved out of religious rituals featuring a chorus of singers and dancers, and it achieved its distinctive shape when two or more actors stood apart from the chorus as tragic actors. The chorus of a Greek tragedy is not the “ideal spectator,” as some scholars believe, but rather the representation of the primal unity achieved through the Dionysian. By witnessing the fall of a tragic hero, we witness the death of the individual, who is absorbed back into the Dionysian primal unity. Because the Apollonian impulses of the Greek tragedians give form to the Dionysian rituals of music and dance, the death of the hero is not a negative, destructive act but rather a positive, creative affirmation of life through art.

Unfortunately, the golden age of Greek tragedy lasted less than a century and was brought to an end by the combined influence of Euripides and Socrates. Euripides shuns both the primal unity induced by the Dionysian and the dreamlike state induced by the Apollonian, and instead he turns the Greek stage into a platform for morality and rationality.

One of Nietzsche’s concerns in “The Birth of Tragedy” is to address the question of the best stance to take toward existence and the world. He criticizes his own age for being overly rationalistic, for assuming that it is best to treat existence and the world primarily as objects of knowledge, which is for him meaningless.

Greek tragedy as Nietzsche understands it cannot coexist in a world of Socratic rationality.

Tragedy gains its strength from exposing the depths that lie beneath our rational surface, whereas Socrates insists that we become fully human only by becoming fully rational.

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Dionysus.-

Dionysus (on the right side).-

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Check out: “The Birth of Tragedy (1872), by Friedrich Nietzsche”:

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Click on the cover book to read it.-

Click on the cover book to read it.-

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"Apollo Playing the Lyre" by Charles Philippe Lariviere.-

“Apollo Playing the Lyre” by Charles Philippe Lariviere (1825/1830).-

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"Dionysus drunk by Tsarouchis (1972).-

“Dionysus drunk by Yannis Tsarouchis (1972).-

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►Links Post:
http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/nietzsche/section1.rhtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Birth_of_Tragedy
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/Dionysus.html
http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Apollon.html
http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/apollomyth/ig/Apollo/Apollo-and-Other-Olympian-Gods.htm
http://mythologian.net/apollo-the-god-of-sun-music-prophecy-and-healing/

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Mythology: “Charon, Ancient Greek God of The Underworld”:

"Charon" (1684-6) by Luca Giordano. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence.-

“Charon” (1684/1686) by Luca Giordano. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence.-

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Charon (Χαρων) was the son of the primordial Gods Erebus (God of Darkness) and Nyx (Goddess of Light). The  name Charon means ‘fierce brightness’ in Greek,  and the Roman´s equivalent was Charus.

He was the ferryman of the dead, an underworld daimon (spirit) in the service of King Haides. He received the shades of the dead from Hermes  who gathered them from the upper world and guided them to the shores of  River Acheron.

The Acheron was also known as the River of Pain that flowed from the Styx and believed to carry pains intended for mortals back to earth. It also carried the good souls from the Underworld that were sent back to earth to be reincarnated as mortals.

Those who had not received due burial and were unable to pay his fee, would be left to wander the earthly side of the Acheron, haunting the upper world as ghosts.

Although Hermes might have taken the souls of the dead to the banks of the river for free, Charon demanded his fee.

From there Charon transported them in his skiff to a final resting place in Hades, the land of the dead, on the other side.

The fee for his service was a single obolos, a coin  a silver coin worth a sixth of a drachma, which was placed in the mouth of a corpse at burial (It was known as Charon´s obol).

People who are unable to pay the fee are doomed to wander the shores of the river for a hundred years.

Since most Greeks, understandably, did not want to wander in the mists and marshes, they buried their dead with coins to pay the ferryman; this tradition is still retained in many parts of Greece.

Living people who want to visit Hades must also pay the ferryman.

Given the fact that they needed two trips, Charon charged significantly more, and several myths and stories indicate that visitors to Hades payed with a golden branch to cross the river and then return.

In the catabasis mytheme, some heroes  - such as Heracles and Dionysus- travel to the Underworld and return, still alive, conveyed by the ferry of Charon.

Several Greek and Roman authors wrote about traveling to the Underworld, usually with the assistance of an experienced guide.

Dante, for example, wrote “The Inferno”, and “The Aeneid “by Virgil also features a trip to the Underworld.

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Obol from Greek Classical period (479-336 BC).-

Obol from Greek Classical period (479-336 BC).-

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The imaginary Map of Hades (the Underworld):

Map based on the most generally accepted version, as described in Greek Myths.-

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"Barque of Dante" by Eugene Delacroix . Musée du Louvre.-

“Barque of Dante” (1822) by Eugene Delacroix. Musée du Louvre.-

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Charon´ s Family Tree:

Nyx´s  Children of the Underworld:

Nyx, the goddess of darkness, was the mother of many of the Gods related to death and darkness. Some of them were the result of her union with Erebus.

The family members and genealogy of Charon are detailed in the following family tree, providing an overview of the relationships between Charon and some of the principle Greek gods and goddesses of death and the Underworld.

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►Genealogy of Charon: References:

♠Lyssa was the goddess of rage, fury and  raging madness,

♠Moros was one of the primeval gods who was a son of Nyx was believed to be the mother of everything mysterious and anything that was inexplicable, such as death, disease, sleep, ghosts, dreams, witchcraft and enchantments. His father was Erebus, who reigned in a palace in the dark regions of the Underworld.

♠Momus was the Primordial Greek god of blame, censure and criticism.

♠Eris was the goddess of Discord, quarrels and feuds.

♠The Fates were three goddesses who were sisters.

Their names were: Klotho (Clotho), Lachesis and Atropos.

Klotho spinned the thread of life, Lachesis determined the length of the thread and Atropos cut the thread when the proper time came for death.

♠The Furies  (Or Erynies) were three goddesses  who avenged crimes against the natural order.

They were the three goddesses of vengeance: Tisiphone (avenger of murder), Megaera (the jealous) and Alecto (constant anger).

♠The Keres, or “Death Fates” were ‘scavengers who defiled the deads.

♠Hypnos was the god of Sleep who also brought nightmares to mortals.

♠The Oneiroi were Hypnos´ sons and were all gods of dreams: their names were Moorpheus, Icelus, and Phantasos (They were also cousins of Charon)

♠Oizys was the goddess of distress, anxiety and worry

♠Geras was the god of loathsome Old Age.

♠Epiphron was the daimon, titan, or god of prudence, shrewdness, thoughtfulness, sagacity, leadership, and carefulness

♠Nemesis was the avenging goddess of Divine Retribution.

♠Hecate was the goddess of magic, witchcraft, the night, moon and ghosts.

♠Thanatos was the God of Death, the hard-hearted, pitiless, enemy of mankind

♠Aether was the Protogenos (first-born elemental god) of the bright, glowing upper air of heaven – the substance of light

♠Hemera was the Protogenos (primeval goddess) of the day.

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"Paso de la Laguna Estigia " by Joachim Patinir.

“Paso de la Laguna Estigia” (1520/1524) by Joachim Patinir. Museo del Prado.-

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Worth Reading: I recommend this post by author Luciana Cavallaro: “Death Has a Face” at Eternal Atlantis

“As Hades ruled the dead, he forbade any to leave and if anyone attempted to breakout or someone tried to steal one of the dead back, he threatened them. Heroes Herakles, Odysseus, Aeneas and Theseus were the only ones who entered the underworld and managed to escape”… Read More.

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►Slideshare: “Paintings based on Charon´s Myth”:

 

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Links Post:
http://www.theoi.com/Khthoni os/Kharon.html
http://www.wisegeek.com/in-greek-mythology-who-is-charon.htm
http://mythology.wikia.com/wiki/Charon
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/c/charon.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/107610/Charon
http://www.tribunesandtriumphs.org/roman-gods/charon.htm
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Awards Section:
1) My blogger and friend Angie, from Family Answers Fast has nominated me for four awards . You can check out her post here: Awards Thank You.
Thank you Angie ❤…
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My Nominees  for these four awards are: 
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Rules: I have nominated three bloggers per award. The nominees must do the same. Besides, they will have to describe themselves using every letter of the alphabet. 
If you need help with the descriptive adjectives, Click here 
My personal descriptive alphabet:
A: Amalia. B: Brave. C:  Cautious. D: Dainty. E: Eager. F: Fancy. G: Generous. H: Hypercritical. I: Incisive. J: Jovial. K: Kind. L: Lethargic. M: Mild. N: Natural. O: OMG. P: Pedemonte. Q: Quick-tempered. R: Revered (!). S: Spirited. T: Tolerant. U: Undependable. V: Versatile. W: Well-intentioned. X: X- Rayed (the only adjective that came to my mind). Y: Youngish. Z: Zoetic
──✽✿✽──
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2) Desde el gran blog Deslizia, mi blog ha recibido una nominación para el Premio Versatile Blogger Award (Trophee version). Podés ver el post aquí: Gracias. Agradecidísima, Deslizia
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Mis nominados para este Premio son:
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Reglas: He nominado quince blogs, de acuerdo a lo establecido en las reglas del Premio. Los blogs son todos ellos en castellano. Las reglas para los nominados son las mismas que las mismas que he cumplido (O sea nominar quince blogs y enlazar el blog que los ha nominado).  Además, deberán enumerar siete cosas que los caractericen.
Siete cosas sobre mí:
Soy escorpiana. Me encantan los maníes salados. También la Literatura y la Filosofía. No tengo Facebook. Tampoco como carne roja. Me gustaría viajar por todo el mundo. Cuando miro al cielo me pregunto si hay vida en Marte y otros planetas. Y si a veces dudo, es porque existo…
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►Icarus´Fall: “The Myth. Symbolism and Interpretation”:

"Icarus and Daedalus", by Charles Paul Landon

“Icarus and Daedalus”, by Charles Paul Landon.-

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Icarus´Fall: “The Myth”: 

Icarus’s father Daedalus, an athenian  craftsman, built the Labyrinth for King Minos  of Crete near his palace at Knossos  to imprison the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster born of his wife and the Cretan bull. Minos imprisoned Daedalus himself in the labyrinth because he gave Minos’ daughter, Ariadne, a or ball of string in order to help  Theseus , the enemy of Minos, to survive the Labyrinth and defeat the Minotaur.

Daedalus fashioned two pairs of wings out of wax and feathers for himself and his son. Daedalus tried his wings first, but before taking off from the island, warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, nor too close to the sea, but to follow his path of flight.

If he were to do so, Daedalus explained, the wax that held his wings together would melt, rendering them useless, and Icarus would fall from the sky to his death.

Icarus, however, was overcome by the incredible feeling of flight. He was so taken by the experience, that he flew higher and higher. He flew so high that he got perilously close to the sun. Just as his father warned him would happen, the wax on his wings melted into a useless liquid. The wings fell to pieces and Icarus fell from the sky. The water into which Icarus is said to have fallen is near Icaria, a Grecian Island in the Aegean Sea. The island is named for the legendary flying man. Icaria is southwest of the island of Samos.

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SlideShare: “Daedalus and Icarus”:

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

Click on the image above to watch the SlideShare.-

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Icarus´Fall: “Symbolism and Interpretation”:

Symbols are insightful expressions of human nature.They are the external, lower expressions of higher truths and represent deep intuitive wisdom impossible by direct terms.

Joseph Campbell defined symbols as “giving expression to what is absolutely “unknowable” by  intellect”.

In the psychiatric mind features of disease were perceived in the shape of the pendulous emotional ecstatic-high and depressive-low of bipolar disorder. 

Henry Murray  having proposed the term Icarus complex, apparently found symptoms particularly in mania where a person is fond of heights, fascinated by both fire and water, narcissistic and observed with fantastical cognitio.

The myth of Icarus´moral is to “take the middle way” by warning against heedless pursuit of instant gratification.

In this sense it highlights the greek idea of  Sophrosyne (Greek: σωφροσύνη), which etymologically means healthy-mindedness and from there self-control or moderation guided by knowledge and balance. 

As Aristotle held, as shown in the post , “Aristotle´s Ethical Theory: On The Concept of Virtue and Golden Mean”, virtue is  a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount.

The flight of Icarus could be interpreted as a lesson in the value of moderation. The danger in flying “too high” (i.e. melting of the wax wings) or in flying “too low” (i.e. weighting down the wings by sea-water spray) were advocations for one to respect one’s limits and to act accordingly.

The moral of this myth could be also linked to Plato´s analogy of the divided line, in which the Sun symbolizes the highest Form (Idea of God). Therefore according to this perspective, Icarus has flown too high . He tried to become wiser than Gods whilst achieving Knowledge and, as he defied the godess,  he was punished for that reason.

A similar interpretation is found in Plato´s myth of Phaethon, as it appears in his elderly dialogue “Timaeus”.

Moreover and going further, considering Plato´s allegory of the cave, Icarus could be linked to the  escaped prisoner, who represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge outside of the cave (labyrinth).

Icarus´s myth may also be related to Plato´s analogy of the chariot. When flying high with his waxed wings, Icarus´ chariot  was driven by the obstinated black horse, which represents man’s appetites. The fact of disobeying Daedalus´advice proves that his rational part of the soul which should rule over appetites wasn´t strong  and determined enough to do so. In other words, the black horse beats the rational charioteer .

Icarus’ age is an aspect of the myth that deserves a mention here, for it is a characteristic of the period of adolescence to impulsively follow the appetite for life, to rush into the unknown adventure, to chase dreams, to follow temptation and not to heed warnings of danger.-

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"The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus" by Merry-Joseph Blondel

“The Sun, or the Fall of Icarus” by Merry-Joseph Blondel

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"The Lament for Icarus" by H. J. Draper.-

“The Lament for Icarus” by H. J. Draper.-

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Icarus´Fall: Paintings:

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 Links Post:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icarus
http://www.shmoop.com/daedalus-icarus/myth-text.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophrosyne
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaethon
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2007/08/05/icaro/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/01/25/aristotles-ethical-theory-on-the-concepts-of-virtue-and-golden-mean/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/14/platos-phaedrus-the-allegory-of-the-chariot-and-the-tripartite-nature-of-the-soul/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/04/03/platos-republic-the-allegory-of-the-cave-and-the-analogy-of-the-divided-line/
http://aquileana.wordpress.com/2008/01/21/andre-comte-sponville-el-mito-de-icaro-tratado-de-la-deseperanza-y-de-la-felicidad/

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►”Happy Easter 2014″:

Best Wishes, Aquileana :P

Happy-Easter

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

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In the dialogue “Phaedrus”, Plato presents the allegory of the chariot to explain the tripartite nature of the human soul or psyche. 

The chariot is pulled by two winged horses, one mortal and the other immortal.

The mortal, black horse is deformed and obstinate. Plato describes the horse as a “crooked lumbering animal, put together anyhow… of a dark color, with grey eyes and blood-red complexion; the mate of insolence and pride, shag-eared and deaf, hardly yielding to whip and spur.”

The inmortal, white horse, on the other hand, is noble and game, “upright and cleanly made… his color is white, and his eyes dark; he is a lover of honor and modesty and temperance, and the follower of true glory; he needs no touch of the whip, but is guided by word and admonition only.”

→In the driver’s seat is the charioteer, tasked with reining in these disparate steeds, guiding and harnessing them to propel the vehicle with strength and efficiency. The charioteer’s destination is the ridge of heaven, beyond which he may behold the Forms, Truth and absolute Knowledge. These essences nourish the horses’ wings, keeping the chariot in flight.

The charioteer joins a procession of gods, led by Zeus, on this trip into the heavens.

The ride is turbulent. The white horse wishes to rise, but the dark horse attempts to pull the chariot back towards the earth. As the horses pull in opposing directions, and the charioteer attempts to get them into sync, his chariot bobs above the ridge of heaven .

If the charioteer is able to behold the Forms, he gets to go on another revolution around the heavens. But if he cannot successfully pilot the chariot, the horses’ wings wither from lack of nourishment, or break off when the horses collide and attack each other, or crash into the chariots of others.

 When the chariot plummets to earth, the horses lose their wings, and the soul becomes embodied in human flesh. The degree to which the soul falls, and the “rank” of the mortal being it must then be embodied in is based on the amount of Truth it beheld while in the heavens.

The degree of the fall also determines how long it takes for the horses to regrow their wings and once again take flight. Basically, the more Truth the charioteer beheld on his journey, the shallower his fall, and the easier it is for him to get up and get going again.

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guarda20

pl35

guarda20

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The Tripartite Nature of the Soul and the Allegory of the Chariot

 Plato conceives of the soul as having (at least) three parts:

  1. A rational part (the part that loves truth and knowledge, which should rule over the other parts of the soul through the use of reason)→ The Charioteer represents man’s Reason
  2. A spirited part (which seeks glory, honor, recognition and victory) →The white horse represents man’s spirit (thymos:θύμος).
  3. An appetitive part (which desires food, drink, material wealth and sex) →The black horse represents man’s appetites.

Worth noting: In the dialogue “The Republic”, Plato states that justice will be that condition of the soul in which each of these three parts “does its own work,” and does not interfere in the workings of the other parts (Check out this post: “Plato’s “The Republic”: “On the Concept of  Justice”).

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pl7

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Plato’s “Phaedrus”:

Click on the image above to read the dialogue "Phaedrus" by Plato.-

Click on the image above to read the dialogue “Phaedrus” by Plato.-

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Slideshare: Plato’s “Phaedrus”: “The Allegory of the Chariot and The Tripartite Nature of the Soul”:

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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Links Post:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ancient-soul/#3.2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chariot_Allegory
http://outre-monde.com/2010/09/27/platos-metaphors-the-chariot-allegory/
http://www.english.hawaii.edu/criticalink/plato/guide6.html
http://www.john-uebersax.com/plato/plato3.htm
http://www.scandalon.co.uk/philosophy/plato_tripartite_soul.htm

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cave13
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